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LITTLE NATURE LIBRARY

BUTTERFLIES WORTH KNOWING

BY CLARENCE M. WEED, D. Sc.

AUTHOR OF
Seeing Nature First, Nature Biographies, Ten New England Blossoms, The Flower Beautiful, etc.

Illustrated by Thirty-two Plates Sixteen in Color

GARDEN CITY, NEW YORK
DOUBLEDAY, PAGE & COMPANY
1923

PREFACE

     IN THIS little book an attempt has been made to discuss the more abundant and widely distributed butterflies of eastern North America from the point of view of their life histories and their relations to their surroundings. In so doing I have of course availed myself of the written records of a host of students of butterflies, without whose labors no such volume would be possible. Among these two names stand out preeminent--William H. Edwards and Samuel H. Scudder. Each was the author of a sumptuous work on American butterflies to which all later students must refer, both for information and for inspiration. Many others, however, have made notable contributions to our literature of these ethereal creatures. Every seeker after a knowledge of butterflies will soon find himself indebted to the writings of such investigators as the Comstocks, Denton, Dickerson, Dyar, Fernaid, Fiske, Fletcher, French, Hancock, Holland, Howard, Longstaff, Newcomb, Riley, Skinner, Wright, and many others. I am glad to express my obligations to all of these for the assistance their records have given in the preparation of this book.

     While a vast amount of knowledge of butterflies has already been discovered there is still more to be learned concerning them, and throughout these pages I have attempted to indicate the more important opportunities awaiting investigation. The day of the field naturalist has come again and the butterflies are well worthy of careful observations by many interested students.

     The illustrations in the book require a word of credit. The eleven color plates of adult butterflies with wings spread have been made direct from a set of the remarkable transfers which Mr. Sherman F. Denton has been preparing for the last quarter-century, this particular set having been prepared especially for this book. Transfers of this sort were used as insets in Mr. Denton's work on the "Moths and Butterflies of the United States," published in a limited edition by J. B. Millet Company, Boston. The other plates not reproduced from photographs are from drawings by Miss Mary E. Walker or Mr. W. I. Beecroft. In case the photographs are not of my own taking, credit is given beneath each. Two of my photographs have already appeared in "Seeing Nature First" and are here used by permission of its publishers, J. B. Lippincott Company.

                                                                                                                                                               C. M. W.

STATE NORMAL SCHOOL,
Lowell, Mass.

CONTENTS

PART I

     INTRODUCTION

     BUTTERFLY TRANSFORMATIONS

     BUTTERFLIES AND MOTHS

     THE SCENTS OF BUTTERFLIES

     BUTTERFLY MIGRATIONS

     HIBERNATION OR WINTER LETHARGY

     AESTIVATION OR SUMMER LETHARGY

     FEIGNING DEATH IN BUTTERFLIES

     COLORATION OF BUTTERFLIES

     SELECTIVE COLOR SENSE IN BUTTERFLIES

     WARNING COLORATION AND MIMICRY

     HELIOTROPISM IN BUTTERFLIES

     PARASITIC ENEMIES OF BUTTERFLIES

     REARING BUTTERFLIES FROM CATERPILLARS

     PHOTOGRAPHING BUTTERFLIES

     BUTTERFLY COLLECTIONS

PART II

     THE TRUE BUTTERFLIES--SUPERFAMILY Papionoidea

     PARNASSIANS ( Parnassiinae)

     SWALLOWTAILS ( Papilionidae)
          Black Swallowtail
          Giant Swallowtail
          Blue Swallowtail
          Green-clouded Swallowtail
          Tiger Swallowtail
          Patamedes Swallowtail
          Short-tailed Papilio
          Zebra Swallowtail
          Synopsis of the Swallowtails

     WHITES, ORANGE-TIPS, AND YELLOWS (Pieridae).

          The Tribe of the Whites:
          White or Imported Cabbage Butterfly
         Gray-veined White
          Checkered White
          Great Southern White
          Synopsis of the Whites

          The Tribe of the Orange-tips:
          Falcate Orange-tip
          Olympian Orange-tip
          Synopsis of the Orange-tips .

          The Tribe of the Yellows:
          Brimstone or Cloudless Sulphur
          Dog's-head
          Clouded Sulphur
          Orange Sulphur
          Pink-edged Sulphur
          Black-bordered Yellow
          Little Sulphur
          Dainty Sulphur
          Synopsis of the Yellows.

     NYMPHS (Nymphalidae)
          The Tribe of the Fritillaries:
          Gulf Fritillary
          Variegated Fritillary
          Diana Fritillary
          Regal Fritillary
          Great Spangled Fritillary
          Silver-spot Fritillary
          Mountain Silver-spot
         White Mountain Fritillary
          Meadow Fritillary
          Silver-bordered Fritillary
          Synopsis of the Fritillaries.

          The Tribe of the Crescent-spots:
          Baltimore Checker-spot
          Harris's Checker-spot
          Silver Crescent
          Pearl Crescent
          Synopsis of the Crescent-spots

          The Tribe of the Angle-wings:
          Violet-tip
          Hopmerchant or Comma
          Gray Comma
          Green Comma
          Red Admiral or Nettle Butterfly
          Painted Beauty
          Painted Lady or Cosmopolite
          Mourning-cloak
          American tortoise-shell
          White J Butterfly or Compton Tortoise
          Buckeye
          Synopsis of theAngle-wings
               (I. Polygonias--II. Vanessids)

          The Tribe of the Sovereigns:
          Viceroy
          Banded Purple
          Red-spotted Purple
          Vicereine
          Synopsis of the Sovereigns.

          The Tribe of the Emperors:
          Goat-weed Emperor
          Gray Emperor
          Tawny Emperor
          Synopsis of the Emperors .

     MEADOW-BROWNS OR SATYRS (Agapetidae)
          Common Wood Nymph or Grayling
          Southern Wood Nymph
          Pearly Eye
          Eyed Brown
          White Mountain Butterfly
          Arctic Satyr
          Little Wood Satyr
          Other Meadow-browns
          Synopsis of Meadow-browns

     HELICONIANS (Heliconidae)
          Zebra Butterfly

     MILKWEED BUTTERFLIES ( Lymnadidae)
          Monarch
          Queen

     SNOUT BUTTERFLIES OR LONG-BEAKS (Libytheidae)
          Snout Butterfly

     METAL-MARKS (Riodinidae)
          Small Metal-mark
          Large Metal-mark

     GOSSAMER-WINGS (Lycaenidae)
          The Tribe of the Hairstreaks:
          Great Purple Hairstreak
          Gray Hairstreak
          Banded Hairstreak
          Striped Hairstreak
          Acadian Hairstreak
          Olive Hairstreak
          Synopsis of the Hairstreaks

          The Tribe of the Coppers:
          Wanderer
          American Copper
          Synopsis of the Coppers

          The Tribe of the Blues:
          Spring Azure
          Scudder's Blue
          Tailed Blue
          Silvery Blue
          Synopsis of the Blues.

PART III

     THE SKIPPER BUTTERFLIES--SUPERFAMILY (Hesperioidea)

     GIANT SKIPPERS (Megathymidae)
          Yucca-borer Skipper

     COMMON SKIPPERS (Hesperiidae)
          The Tribe of the Larger Skippers:
          Silver-spotted Skipper
          Long-tailed Skipper
          Juvenal's Dusky-wing
          Sleepy Dusky-wing
          Persius's Dusky-wing
          Sooty Wing

          The Tribe of the Smaller Skippers:
          Tawny-edged Skipper
          Roadside Skipper
          Least Skipper.