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"Old Glory" the First Flag at the North Pole


DISCOVERY OF THE NORTH POLE

Dr. FREDERICK A. COOK'S
own story of how he reached

the North Pole April 21st, 1908.
and the Story of Commander
ROBERT E. PEARY'S

Discovery April 6th, 1909.

Graphic and Thrilling Stories of the Greatest Achievement by Man Since Columbus Discovered America;
Terrible Sufferings and Privations; The Awful Cold; Face to Face with Death by Starvation;
American Pluck, Courage and Endurance Reach the Top of the World through Terrific Gales Over a Continent of Ice.

Special Introduction by
General A. W. GREELY, U. S. A.

Renowned Polar Explorer, Gold Medalist Royal Geographical Society and French Geographical Society Author of "Chronological List of Auroras," "Three Years of Arctic Service," "Proceedings of Lady Franklin Bay Expedition," "American Explorers," "Hand Book of Arctic Discoveries, etc., etc.

Edited by Honorable J. MARTIN MILLER
Well-known Author and Traveler

Member of National Geographical Society, Washington, D. C. Author of "The Twentieth Century Atlas and History of the World," "History of the Russia-Japan War," "Complete Story of the Italian Earthquake Horror," etc., etc.

ALSO CONTAINING A
True and Authentic Account of The Great Polar Expeditions, Including Franklin, Greely,
Abruzzi, Nares, Nordenskjold, Nansen, Sverdrup, Shackelton, etc.


ILLUSTRATED WITH HALF-TONE REPRODUCTIONS OF PHOTOGRAPHS OF MANY EXPEDITIONS

COPYRIGHT, 1909
 BY

J. T. Moss



DEDICATION


To those intrepid men who, at the risk of their
lives, with pluck, courage and endurance,
through toilsome and perilous journeys
into the great silent and frozen
zone, made possible the great
discovery here chronicled,
THIS BOOK IS DEDICATED.



INTRODUCTION

By GENERAL A. W. GREELY

Among the many explorations of the unknown regions in recent centuries, none have been more fascinating and engrossing than those for discovery within the polar circles. Despite man's utmost endeavors a veil of mystery has hitherto enveloped the immediate vicinity of both geographical poles. In consequence there have been offered to the world various hypotheses. Some declare that they are located on an ice-clad ocean, others that they are on glacier-covered plateaus. Again the polar regions are declared to be the abodes of great herds of polar and hibernating animals, while their opponents assert that even the white polar bear shuns the highest latitudes. While for the most part the polar countries are believed to be uninhabited, except in the lower parts of the Arctic circle, there are those who have thought it possible that there are habitable areas, where unknown tribes and strange peoples, live, far separated from the rest of the world.

These and kindred polar topics have, for the past four centuries, engaged the attention of the learned and the adventurous, of the scientist and the man of imagination. From time to time there have appeared volumes describing not only the actual inhabitants of the Arctic circle, but also fanciful or semi-serious accounts of imaginary tribes. Indeed there have been so-called scientific books by American authors that argued the non-existence of either a North or South Pole, and asserted that within the polar circles the surface of the earth curves gradually inwards, and that on this interior surface dwell nations as on the outer surface.

For these and other reasons the production from time to time of summaries of polar voyages and explorations are most valuable, as tending to keep alive in the rising generation that interest in the mysterious and wonderful in nature, as well as in adventurous action, which the Polar World peculiarly presents.

The most distinctive feature of polar exploration is not generally recognized, that is its entire disinterestedness. From its earlier phases of voyages to foster commercial intercourse, to stimulate and make more profitable trade relations, by bringing China and the Orient in quick communication with the marts of Europe, polar explorations have passed to higher planes and are now confined to scientific and geographical researches, offering no immediate benefits and free from lure of gain or other aspects of materialism. While with increasing rarity polar work is attended by disastrous losses of life, it has that stimulus to adventurous action, to heroic endurance, and to a spirit of noble endeavor that makes it attractive to hearts and minds which yearn for something beyond the commonplace to stir their pulses.

Nor have polar discoveries been devoid of practical benefits to the world. Bering's voyage led to the discovery of Alaska, which now produces annually more than thirty millions of wealth for the United States. Hudson's early Spitzbergen voyages opened up whale fisheries through which the world has profited to the amount of about seven hundred millions of dollars. Barren of attractions as has been Spitzbergen to the tourist visitor, it is now of such commercial importance that its ownership is to be the subject of international conference.

Polar work has had its tragedies and calamities as well as its triumphs and successes. Scores of books have been written on voyages relating to the Northwest Passage, in attempting which Sir John Franklin and one hundred and twenty-eight other souls perished. Their ships were last seen moored to an iceberg in Baffin Bay, and thereafter there have been found no records later than those reciting the abandonment of their vessels, beset in ice northwest of King William Land, and their retreat southwards towards Great Fish river. This unparalleled polar mystery engaged the attention of the world for nearly fifteen years, until the harrowing story of its fate found at least a partial solution through the great arctic traveler McClintock.

A similar disaster in the middle of the sixteenth century befell the first extended maritime venture of England to distant seas, in the attempted discovery of the Northeast Passage. Chancellor's two ships, with an equippage of sixty-two souls, wintered on the barren shores of Russian Lapland, where the entire party perished on the dread arctic disease — scurvy. In striking contrast with Chancellor's experiences, illustrating the vast improvements in equipment and transportation, Nordenskjold made the Northeast Passage without casualty or danger.

Most fortunately England was not discouraged by this disaster, through which was opened up a lucrative Muscovite trade, but entered on a career of explorations and enterprises which incidentally led to polar expeditions on a scale never attempted by any other nation.

What stories of real life can be more thrilling to American minds than those set forth in polar annals? There are the adventures and wintering of Barents on Nova Zembla, the besetment of Weyprecht and the journey of Payer on the shores of Franz Josef Land, the three winterings of Parry in the North American archipelago, the sledge journeys of Wrangell across the Siberian Ocean, the five years of Sir John Ross in Boothia Felix and the discovery of the North Magnetic Pole, the vicissitudes of Kane and the boat journey of Hayes in the Smith Sound region, Scott among the penguins and on the ice-barrier of volcanic Antarctica, the great drift of De Long and the disaster of the Lena delta, McClure's discovery of one Northwest Passage and the navigation of another by Amundsen, the successes and sufferings of the men of the Lady Franklin Bay expedition, the death of Hall and the miraculous drift of the Polaris crew, and many other notable voyages culminating in the great northings of Markham, Lockwood, Nansen, Cagni and the attainment of the North Pole by Cook and by Peary.

All these, and other varied experiences, bordering on the marvelous and exceeding many flights of fancy, appeal to the imagination, stimulate emulation, and cultivate an ardent appreciation of manly and heroic qualities exhibited in action.

While the wonderful journey of Shackelton to the vicinity of the South Pole has naturally excited wide-spread interest, most intense in Great Britain, the astonishing arctic episodes of 1909 have engrossed the attention of the United States, where feeling and interest have been aroused to an extent unequaled by any other news of the period.

That two Americans should have reached the North Pole independently would be most gratifying to the national pride at any time, but that such journeys should be made over separate routes and in successive years borders on the marvelous. Especial interest attaches, therefore, to their methods, routes and experiences.

Dr. F. A. Cook established in 1907 his headquarters most primitively with the Etah Eskimo some two hundred and fifty miles from the Arctic sea. He took the field in native fashion, with Eskimo assistants, and selecting a novel route traveled through regions well-known to abound in game. Attaining the North Pole with two Eskimos, April 21, 1908, he was subjected in his return to the vicissitudes and extreme dangers of a drifting polar-pack, and spent an awful winter in Jones' Sound region, whence his return in 1909 was hazardous and difficult.

Commander Peary approached the task by again establishing his ship's quarters in 1908 on the very shores of the Arctic Ocean, across whose drifting ice-pack he successfully made his journey, reaching the pole April 9, 1909. Thus he accomplished by energy and resourcefulness the great task to which he has applied himself for some twenty-three years.

A. W. Greeley
Late Commander Lady Franklin Bay Expedition.


COMPETITION AT THE POLE. (From the Philadelphia Inquirer.)



EDITORS PREFACE


Two men have at last set foot at the apex of the world. Dr. Frederick A. Cook and Commander Robert E. Peary, U. S. N., announced on September 1st and September 5th, 1'909, respectively, that they reached the North Pole on April 21st, 1908, and April 6th, 1909, respectively.

For centuries the bravest explorers and navigators of the greatest European countries have made attempts to capture this prize. It remained, however, for two American explorers to make the discovery. Dr. Cook and Commander Peary were at one time fellow explorers belonging to the same expedition. Afterwards they became the keenest of rivals. In commercial parlance it is said that ''competition is the life of trade." It may now well be said that competition is the life of exploration.

Dr. Cook's announcement thrilled the civilized world as no piece of news has in modern times. Commander Peary's announcement, almost a week later, in which he questioned Dr. Cook's claims, made the startling news extremely sensational. The controversy that arose between the rival explorers filled the columns of every newspaper, weekly print and monthly magazine in every language and country throughout the world. There seems to have been a race, without . parallel in the history of the world, between the two explorers, to satisfy the goal of their ambition. After each had reached the Pole there was another race through unexplored and uninhabited regions for weeks and months to reach the civilized world with the news of the discovery. The chapters of this book will relate how Dr. Cook spent the long sunless months of privation and intense suffering travelling over thousands of miles of ice. These pages will relate the same as regards the expedition of Commander Peary.

The critics of Europe and America were quick to point out that Dr. Cook took no white man from his expedition with him to the Pole, but was accompanied only by two Eskimo-Indians. It seemed to be assumed that Commander Peary was accompanied by white men. His fuller reports, after three or four days, however, furnished the information to the world that he also discovered the Pole entirely alone, except one Eskimo-Indian as his companion. It is not the purpose of this book to analyze or theorize concerning the claims of the two rival explorers. The pages of the work will treat with the impressions and decisions of scientific experts based upon the data supplied by the two explorers. The interesting and valuable fact is that the Pole has been discovered. There is glory enough in it for both the daring explorers.

The writer became acquainted with Commander Peary at "Washington, D. C. He has given his entire life to adventure and exploration. His determination and heart 's desire were such that undoubtedly during the many years of effort accompanied by the most extreme hardships and privations. Commander Peary naturally had come to think that it was for him to discover the Pole and no one else. As human nature is constituted, we perhaps, should make allowances if Commander Peary has subjected himself, because of his criticisms of Dr. Cook, to being charged with being unethical and unprofessional.

"While Dr. Cook is an experienced and daring explorer, his service as one has covered a less number of years than Commander Peary has taken from his life for this purpose. Shortly after Dr. Cook's Antarctic Expedition, the writer had the honor of meeting him in Europe. We spent seven days together as ship mates crossing the Atlantic. Since that time it has been my pleasure to meet him on different occasions. Dr. Cook is a much less impulsive man than Commander Peary. "When we consider this difference in temperament, we should have patience with the impatient and impulsive man if he has fallen a victim to the too common human frailties, and think only of the daring feat he has accomplished. Aside from the discovery of the North Pole both men have for years furnished most valuable geographical and scientific information for the benefit of the entire world. The discovery of the North Pole was simply the crowning feat of a series of discoveries and explorations covering several years.

Scores and perhaps hundreds of these expeditions have resulted in failure. Hundreds of lives have been lost. The fate of many of these daring explorers is among the things unknown. Besides, millions in money have been expended.

Many people will question the practical discovery of the North Pole now that it is made. Many are already claiming that the discovery is of sentimental satisfaction only. Let us not be too hasty in drawing such a conclusion.

A third of a century ago, we had many theorists who felt certain that the vast central western country between the Missouri River and the Rocky Mountains was the "Great American Desert" and entirely worthless.

Stanford, Huntington and Crocker, who conceived and made possible the construction of the first transcontinental railway to the Pacific Coast were ridiculed and denounced as being dreamers. Likewise, when the United States purchased Alaska the criticisms were intense. Those who favored making Alaska a part of this country by purchase from Russia were denounced as delusionists.

Many who, in a half-hearted manner, favored the purchase did so to "get Russia out of America," and saw only a sentimental reason for ''throwing away" $7,200,000, by giving it to Russia for a region of ''no practical use in the world."

Who knows but that, as time goes on, it will be demonstrated that the discovery of the extreme Arctic Regions may prove to be of more than sentimental and geographical value to all the world and particularly to the United States, in that it will belong to the United States by right of discovery.

But, let us consider the fact of the discovery a little further. Imagine the discoverer of the North Pole standing with one foot on the extreme end of the 180th meridian and the other on the meridian of zero, or Greenwich. The other end of each of these two imaginary lines comes together after entirely encircling the globe nearly 13,000 miles in either direction, at the South Pole. Here is the spot where no human foot has ever trod, but the thought of the scientific world has centered here for centuries. Is it possible to imagine the thrilling emotions that filled the breast of the daring explorer who at last stood at this spot? It is as impossible to appreciate such feelings as it is to realize the extreme sufferings and privations endured to reach the coveted spot. Then, the intrepid discoverer must encounter the same hardships, facing death every minute and every hour on the return to civilization and home.

We will assume that Dr. Cook or Commander Peary — the reader may take his choice in his imagination, as to which one of these daring explorers is actually standing at the top of the world — stood astride the North Pole with his right foot on the meridian of Greenwich and his left on the 180th meridian. It is plain that so far as the terrestrial world is concerned, he is facing southward in any direction he may look. There is no east, west or north. Every direction is south. If he is looking straight ahead his eyes are scanning along the 90th meridian east of Greenwich and his back is toward the 90th meridian west of Greenwich. Thus, we have the world quartered, so to speak.

If he turns his eyes one-quarter of the way around to the right and looks in the direction straight away from his right side, he is looking directly down the meridian of Greenwich, or zero, which passes through the Arctic Ocean almost midway between Spitzbergen and Greenland. Farther south it extends through the North Sea until it crosses the extreme southeastern side of England at Greenwich. Onward this imaginary line shaves off the extreme western side of France and the northeasternmost comer of Spain, crosses the Mediterranean through Algeria, almost touching the southeastern corner of Morocco, and across the Sahara desert in Africa. In the Gulf of Guinea in the South Atlantic Ocean it crosses the equator. Here we are just one-half of the distance from the North Pole to the South Pole. In its onward reach to the South Pole, the meridian of Greenwich passes almost entirely over water, so far as known.

Now, if the explorer will turn his face from right to left as he stands at the North Pole, his eyes will be looking in the direction of the 180th meridian. This extends across the Arctic Ocean almost touching the eastern end of New Columbia, or Wrangel Island, and then cuts off the extreme end of Siberia, which projects into the Bering Strait. Now, it passes through the Gulf of Anadir through the Bering Sea, across a cluster of the Aleutian Islands, through the Pacific Ocean, where it crosses the equator and extends onward across the Tropic of Capricorn and beyond grazes the eastermost projection of New Zealand. This makes New Zealand the eastermost civilized country of the world. It will be seen that practically the only land the 180th meridian crosses is that fragment of farthest and desolate Siberia, mentioned above. In its onward course to the South Pole the 180th meridian, like the meridian of Greenwich, on the exact opposite side of the world, passes entirely over water, so far as known.

In a chapter of this book reference is made to the beautiful little story of Edgar Allan Poe about the young sea captain who could not get the consent of the father of his sweetheart to marry her. The father meant to tell the young captain that it would be impossible for him to consent to let him have his daughter. To make it as strong as possible the father said to the young navigator, ''whenever you can prove to me that there are fifty-four Sundays in one year, you may have my daughter." Being an experienced navigator and knowing that a Sunday or any day may be gained by crossing the 180th meridian in an easterly direction, the young skipper accepted the father's offer as a bargain. After a two years' cruise the young captain came back and demonstrated, after long and patient explanation to the girl's father that he had actually found fifty-four Sundays by turning his ship around and crossing the 180th meridian twice in an easterly direction. Much to his joy the young navigator found his lover's father a man of his word. In crossing the 180th meridian in a westerly direction a day may be lost. It is here, as time is measured, that every day begins and ends, being reckoned from the meridian of Greenwich;

It matters not whether we can make up our minds as to the practical usefulness of the North Pole and the vast unexplored regions surrounding it. The fact remains that it is, without doubt, the most important geographical discovery since Columbus discovered America. This discovery will undoubtedly give a great stimulus to explorers all over the world to make efforts to reach the South Pole. When this feat is accomplished it would seem that there will be no more "worlds to conquer."



WHO WILL BE "NEXT" AT THE POLE. (From the Philadelphia Inquirer.)


SHACKLETON"S JOURNEY TO WITHIN 111 MILES OF THE SOUTH POLE


THE RETURN TO WINTER CAMP AFTER BEING LOST FOR FOUR DAYS

FOREWORD.


The North Pole has been discovered.

It has been left for the year 1909 to bring forth what men of ages past have striven for in vain. Two American explorers, men whom neither nature's terrors nor self-interest could sway, have gone into the far north and have returned with news that their feet have rested upon the apex of the globe. Both have their supporters. The friends of the one will not believe in the achievements of the other. Probably as long as human beings can think for themselves, or at least until more fortunate men can thoroughly traverse the ice-covered seas of the pole, there will be question of the deeds of either Cook or Peary.

Such glory as has fallen to their lot is not easy to apportion.

Dr. Cook ventured into the mysterious north and returned by way of Greenland to Denmark, where he arrived worn, weary and haggard to make the first claim of having discovered the pole. Commander Peary, of the United States navy, returned by a western path, skirted Canada, and from Labrador sent his message of victory — not a week behind his predecessor. Both were given a welcome befitting conquerors. Both were called upon for proofs, and gave them. They were rivals such as never contended before for the honor of their fellows. They brought news that stirred the imaginations of even the dullest. The fact of their almost simultaneous announcement of triumph forms one of the most startling coincidences in all history.

The purpose of this volume is not to discuss the rival claims of these modern vikings; not to present anew the arguments strung out ad nauseam by warring bands of scientists; not to detract in the least from the credit due to either man. This book aims simply to present, from the records available, and from the statements made by the explorers themselves, a complete and impartial account of what they saw and did.

Whatever Peary may say of Cook, or Cook of Peary, the fact remains that the pole was discovered. It is preposterous to think that two men could perpetrate such a gigantic falsehood upon their fellow-creatures. It is, indeed, preposterous to suggest that either of these brave souls would utter the greatest lie in history, — for such would this lie be. It is more in accord with the spirit of fair-minded Americanism to assume that both are telling the truth; that both found their way to the most lonely spot on the globe; that both are entitled to a share of the honor.

Peary and Cook!

Let the two names be linked together in the crowning marvel of a marvelous age.

Let there be found room under the Stars and Stripes for both these stalwarts; these noble Americans who took the flag of their country to the pole.

In this book will be found a complete and authentic account of the journeys of Commander Robert E. Peary and Dr. Frederick A. Cook; of what they discovered; of how they were received on their return to civilization; and of what they had done before their careers reached the present glorious fruition. For the better understanding of their achievements there will be presented also an account of the work of previous Arctic explorers, — the men who blazed the way, and whose bones, in many cases, lie there in the far north, swallowed up by the forces against which they strove.

THE AUTHOR..



TABLE OF CONTENTS


CHAPTER I.
THE NORTH POLE FOUND.
"I have found the North Pole," the epoch-making message of Dr. Frederick A. Cook — Success where men had failed for centuries — The impossible accomplished — Civilization astounded, and the eyes of all mankind turned toward the north — Description by a great scientist of what it means to find the axis of the globe — Will United States claim the new territory?

CHAPTER II.
HOW COOK STARTED.
Secret preparation for the dash to the pole — The long journey the sequel to a fishing trip — Cook's vessel only a fishing schooner — Start for the polar regions

CHAPTER III.
DR. COOK'S OWN STORY.
Standing on the top of the world — The great dash across the ice — Eskimos' patience exhausted — A vast excursion into the terrestrial unknown

CHAPTER IV.
THE EXPLORER'S RETURN TO CIVILIZATION.
Explorers freezing in their idleness — What Cook saw when he reached the pole — A vast expanse of purple snows — No life, no land, nothing but ice — Privations of the return journey — Shooting walrus for food

CHAPTER V.
A NATION'S HOMAGE TO A HERO.
Arrival of Dr. Cook at Copenhagen — Greeted on shipboard by the crown prince of Denmark — Escorted ashore, and followed through the streets by a dense, cheering crowd, which tore the clothing of the explorer and his escort — Guest of a scientific society — Honored at a banquet — Given private audience by the king of Denmark — The gaunt, bedraggled traveler back once more among friends

CHAPTER VI.
COOK'S PREPARATION FOR HIS GREAT TASK.
A birthday passed in a lonely land — Dr. Cook always adventurous, and an explorer from youth — His first work with Peary — Goes to the antarctic as physician for a party of Belgian scientists — Climbs Mount McKinley, a feat never before performed — Tribute of a companion on that expedition

CHAPTER VII.
PEARY FINDS THE POLE.
The unbelievable message that came to a news agency in New York — "I have nailed the Stars and Stripes to the pole" — Credulity stretched to the breaking point — Peary convinces all — His dispatches to official sources and to his wife — Reception of the news by Mrs. Peary and by the daughter who was born in the arctic

CHAPTER VIII.
PEARY'S SUCCESSFUL VOYAGE.
The steamer Roosevelt starts north, and is given God-speed by President Roosevelt — The voyage to Greenland — Peary describes preparations for the dash to the pole — Getting supplies, and shooting the formidable game of the region — High hopes for success after a life-time of effort

CHAPTER IX.
EARLY LIFE OF PEARY.
Fired as boy and man with the love of adventure — Reads of prowess of polar travelers, and achieves ambition to follow in their steps — First work in the line of exploration — Various trips in quest of the pole touched on briefly — Peary's wife and family

CHAPTER X.
PEARY'S STORY OF THE DASH TO THE POLE.
Leaving Greenland with dogs and sledges — Long days' journeys over the ice — Terrific toil of lifting the sledge over ice-hummocks, and breaking a path — Despair of Peary's followers, and his own fortitude — The long-sought goal in sight — The last lap and the final dash — Victory!

CHAPTER XI.
THE BATTLE OF THE HEROES.
Controversies likely to attend great success — Peary challenges Cook's work — Calm reply of the man being feted in Denmark — Countercharges are made, and friends of both men take sides

CHAPTER XII.
PEARY'S FIRST VOYAGE.
"Getting his sea-legs" as a polar traveler — Goes north and studies Eskimos — Mrs. Peary as a companion of her husband in the frozen land — Life among the Eskimos — Accomplishment of first expedition

CHAPTER XIII.
PEARY'S LATER VOYAGES.
Pushing farther north each time — Journeys of 1896 and later — Achievement of the record of 87 degrees north latitude — Lands explored and geographic observations made — Hope always of at last achieving the pole

CHAPTER XIV.
TROUBLES OF THE POLAR EXPLORER.
Dangers the lure of the adventurous — Habits of Eskimo dogs — An exciting and humorous description of the crankiness of these arctic animals — Explorers assailed by hunger and weariness — Shooting game for food — Thrilling experiences of a party of starving hunters

CHAPTER XV.
THE EARLIEST POLAR EXPLORATIONS.
North Pole a lure of mankind for many centuries — Was it once peopled with a race hardier than ours? — The ancient explorers and their crude theories — Commercial advance the first incentive of search — Sporting blood inspires the chase of the earth's axis

CHAPTER XVI.
TRAGEDY OF SIR JOHN FRANKLIN.
The brave English officer who determined to find the pole — Sets out with two ships and large party of men — Ostensible aim to find the north passage, but secret ambition to discover the pole — The long silence following entry of the ships into the ice-bound north — Searching parties find proof that Franklin and all his companions perished

CHAPTER XVII.
KANE, THE MODEL OF PEARY.
Expedition to the far north in 1853 — Battle with ice and storm in Melville Bay — Long hours without water or food — Frozen into sleeping-bags — Rescue and return to Greenland — Great value of discoveries

CHAPTER XVIII.
GEN. GREELY'S EPOCH-MAKING TRIPS.
Envoy of United States government to try for farthest north — Passes through the perils and sufferings that fell to the lot of all — Reaches far northern point, but is forced to turn back

CHAPTER. XIX.
RESCUE OF THE GREELY PARTY.
Valuable scientific discoveries of the Greely expedition — His name enrolled among those of the bravest and most reliable of polar travelers

CHAPTER XX.
FRIDTJOF NANSEN, THE MODERN VIKING.
Nansen, the hardy Norseman, determines to find the pole — Fitting up of the Fram, one of the sturdiest ships that had battled with ice-bound seas — Start of a drifting voyage through the polar ocean — Beset by huge bergs and hummocks — Party forced to subsist on poor food, and facing starvation — Turns back, after attaining "farthest north," before Peary

CHAPTER XXI.
TWO BALLOONISTS WHO FAILED.
Wellman conceives the idea of sailing to the pole in a dirigible balloon — His two attempts, ending in failure of the airship to proceed more than a few miles

CHAPTER XXII.
LIFE AMONG THE ESKIMOS.
Little-known facts about a hardy people — Are they intelligent, or the reverse? — Their means of getting food — Their cunning devices against the rigors of frost — What it means to live in a below-zero climate the year round 224

CHAPTER XXIII.
SHACKELTON'S "FARTHEST SOUTH."
Disadvantages of journeying south compared with the northern route — The great antarctic even less known than the arctic — Early journeys south — The record-breaking trip of Lieut. Shackelton

CHAPTER XXIV.
THE SOUTH POLE WILL BE FOUND.
Only glory now left to explorers — Plans of Peary, Cook, and others, to seek the south pole — Honor awaiting the discoverer — Will an American be first at the "bottom of the world?"

CHAPTER XXV.
DR. COOK IN THE ANTARCTIC.
How the explorer sailed south with a party from Antwerp, Belgium — Cruises in the ice fastnesses of the extreme antarctic — The vessel caught in the ice — A 2,000-mile drift amid ice floes — The Belgica buffeted by the winds, and ground by huge masses of ice — Howling gales and creaking timbers, with every moment fateful with tragedy — Typical experiences of voyagers under such circumstances — The dreadful perils of the ship Investigator

CHAPTER XXVI.
WHAT SCIENTISTS SAID OF THE RIVALS.
A well-known Scandinavian tells why he believes in Dr. Cook — Modesty and coolness of the Brooklyn man — Physician gives his views
CHAPTER XXVII.
COOK'S RETURN HOME.
Explorer lands in New York, and is greeted by great crowd — Ships in the harbor filled with admirers — Affecting greeting from family — Hero is garlanded with roses

CHAPTER XXVIII.
PEARY'S WELCOME HOME.
Man who vies with Cook as discoverer arrives in Sydney, N. S., and is given honors of the city — Triumphal tour through Maine on railroad train — Crowds along route cheer him

CHAPTER XXIX.
PREVIOUS GREAT CONTROVERSIES.
Historic struggle over alleged discovery of the source of the Nile — A nobleman involved — Sensation at a public meeting — Death of one of the contenders — Columbus and his great rival

CHAPTER XXX.
VALUABLE ANIMALS OF THE ARCTIC.
Sea animals of great size and of enormous wealth of fur — Great herds of Muskox and other land animals — Wonderful habits of the Arctic animals

CHAPTER XXXI.
MARVELS OF THE YEAR 1909.
North pole discovery only one of many wonderful discoveries and achievements — Ocean record broken by the Mauretania — Aerial navigation vastly improved — Records of Wright and Curtiss

CHAPTER XXXII.
AMUNDSEN'S DISCOVERY OF THE NORTHWEST PASSAGE.
Norwegian sailor sets out in footsteps of the vikings and of Nansen — Sails along in region where Franklin perished and others failed — Navigates little ship through narrow and dangerous passages — Success at last

CHAPTER XXXIII.
HENRY HUDSON HONORED IN NEW YORK.
North Pole attempt ranks him with many who ventured north in early days — Discoverer of Hudson Bay and Hudson River — Mysterious and romantic career of sea adventurer — Both his origin and his death veiled in mystery — New York honors his memory with pageantry and ceremony

CHAPTER XXXIV.
HOW LATITUDE IS RECKONED.
Uses of the sextant and artificial horizon scientifically described — The method of applying delicate instruments under adverse conditions — Discovery of the compass, the mariner's mainstay, and little known facts about the origin of this device

CHAPTER XXXV.
THE STORY OF HARRY WHITNEY.
Young New Haven sportsman becomes an important witness in the great polar controversy — Story of how he received Dr. Cook's records, tried to take them aboard Peary's ship, and was refused permission — Rival explorers emit broadsides of argument

CHAPTER XXXVI.
WONDERS OF THE ANTARCTIC WORLD.
Further discoveries of Shackelton and companions — 5,000 feet of vertical ice — Story of how a monster volcano was explored — Types of animal life found at "the bottom of the world"

CHAPTER XXXVII.
HOW THE DUKE OF ABRUZZI, WHO NEARLY FOUND THE NORTH POLE, CLIMBED THE HIMALAYAS.
Italian nobleman who achieved far northern record achieves greatest mountaineering feat of the year 1909 — Starts out with large expedition and conquers a mighty peak 24,500 feet above the sea — Thrilling experiences in crossing wide valleys and ascending difficult steeps

CHAPTER XXXVIII.
MARVELS OF THE NORTH, AS TOLD BY NANSEN.
Norwegian explorer among most picturesque of writers — He describes with poetic enthusiasm the varied glories of the north — Marvelous aurora borealis, painting the sky in thrilling colors — ^A great, white, lonely world

CHAPTER XXXIX.
DR. NANSEN AS A MIGHTY NIMROD.
Prowess of the explorer greater than that of his companions — Pursuit of the elusive reindeer described — Methods of bagging the clumsy walrus — Adventures of intrepid hunters in bringing down polar bears

CHAPTER XL.
DR. HAYES' TERRIBLE BOAT JOURNEY.
Surgeon of Kane expedition tells how his companions set out in small craft to get supplies — Buffeted by storms and adrift on ice — Drenched by freezing water and exhausted by battle with elements, they reach land

CHAPTER XLI.
FURTHER EXPERIENCES OF DR. HAYES.
Facing winter, the broken-down travelers build a hut — Drifting snow almost buries them from sight — One of party, making a relief trip, is nearly murdered by Eskimos — Latter at length prove to be friends in need, and Hayes and his men are able to rejoin Dr. Kane

CHAPTER XLII.
ARCTIC AND ANTARCTIC REGIONS.
Extent of the polar regions, difficulties of exploring — South Pole regions unlike the northern regions — Number of lives lost on different polar expeditions from 1553 to 1910

CHAPTER XLIII.

REMARKABLE DISCOVERIES OF A YOUNG ARMY OFFICER.
Youthful graduate of West Point finds overland route from the Pacific Ocean to gold country near Nome, Alaska — Meet great obstacles in an unknown country — Deserted by Indian guides, deprived of transportation, and hampered by scarcity of food before success is attained

CHAPTER XLIV.
FULTON-HUDSON CELEBRATION MIXED WITH THE COOK-PEARY CONTROVERSY.
Vast army of officials and representatives of nations join in the celebration — Cook appears on the scene and the controversy with Peary waxes strong

CHAPTER XLV.
VERDICT OF THE SCIENTIFIC TRIBUNALS ON THE CLAIMS OF COMMANDER ROBERT E. PEARY
AND DR. FREDERICK A. COOK.