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Assassinations — Supposed causes — The innocent suffer for the guilty — Japanese desire for revenge — Midnight attack on H. B. M. Legation The scene next morning — Supposed "reasons for the attack" — Document found on a prisoner — Its translation — Opinions of Japanese ministers — True reasons for the attack — Instigators known — Weakness of government — Causes of its weakness — Its sincerity — The difficulties it has to encounter — Murder of Mr. Richardson — News of a revolution in Yedo.
ON our arrival at Kanagawa we were startled by the intelligence that H. B. M. Legation at Yedo had been attacked the night before by a band of loönins,1 and that the lives of Her Majesty's Minister and his staff of assistants had been in the greatest danger. From the assassinations which had taken place on several occasions, both at Yedo and at Yokuhama, since these places had become the residences of foreigners, human life was generally regarded as being somewhat insecure. And what made matters worse was the fact that no one could give any satisfactory reason for these murders. True, it was reported that Mr. Alcock's servant, who was one of the first victims, had given offence by his arrogance and overbearing manner; the murder of two Russians was attributed to a Japanese official, who, with his family, was degraded at the instance of Count Mouravieff, in consequence of some insult offered to the Russians in the streets of Yedo; and the assassination of the American Secretary of Legation was said to have been committed by a Daimio's retainer, struck by him in the street, who, on returning to his master's, was asked how he dared to do so after receiving a blow which was still unavenged.2 Offence may have been given in this way, and the Japanese, who are a proud and revengeful people, would most certainly have their revenge; but none of the foreign residents could actually affirm that insults of this kind were the causes of the melancholy events that followed.
But, taking for granted that those who had fallen victims to revenge had done something to merit their punishment, it does not follow that the innocent in Japan may always consider themselves perfectly safe. The Japanese assassin is not particular as to his victim. If he can secure the real offender, good and well; if not, a substitute must be had; if an Englishman give offence and cannot be found, one of his countrymen must suffer in his stead. This being the state of affairs, it is plain that the innocent may, at any time, suffer for the imprudence or follies of his countrymen, or, indeed, of any foreigner, without respect to nationality; for the avenger is not particular even on that point.
Revenge is a powerful feeling in the breasts of the natives of Japan, more particularly amongst the higher classes and their numerous bands of two-sworded retainers. These gentry are always ready to resent an insult or injury, real or supposed; and as each man carries about his person two swords whose edges are extremely sharp, he has always the means of giving instant effect to his passion. Nor does this desire for revenge end with the life of the injured person. On the contrary, if he has not been able to accomplish it during his lifetime, he will leave it as an inheritance and obligation to his relations. In the autumn of 1860 an English merchant, who was returning from a shooting excursion, was seized on his way by the native police, and charged with having broken the laws of the country, no one being allowed to shoot within a certain distance of Yedo. In attempting to disarm him, a loaded gun went off, and lodged its contents in the arm of one of the officials. The wound was a dangerous one, and the foreign doctors of the place were of opinion that, unless amputation was resorted to, the man would, in all probability, lose his life. This advice, for some reason, was not listened to; but, luckily, owing to a good constitution, or perhaps to diet, the dreaded mortification did not take place, and the man recovered. It was stated to us at the time of this occurrence that the wounded man had taken an oath that, should he recover, he would not rest until he had the merchant's life, and that, should he die, his brothers would take care that he was avenged. The gentleman in question was tried at the British Consulate and sentenced to deportation; and to this sentence he probably owed his life, which, after what had happened, was not safe for an hour in Japan. During my residence in Japan there were several other instances in which foreigners were obliged to take a hasty leave of the country in order to save their lives.
But although we knew the Japanese to be proud and revengeful, and not very particular as to the identity of their foes provided they were foreigners, and although the community had to deplore the murder of several of its members, apparently innocent and unoffending men, yet nothing had taken place recently to give us any uneasiness. The Japanese, we fancied, were getting accustomed or resigned to the presence of foreigners amongst them; or our rough manners — at times somewhat frolicsome and boisterous — were seen to be harmless, and not intended to hurt or annoy them. But when the news of the murderous attack on H. B. M. Legation reached us, the scales fell at once from our eyes, and we saw we had been sitting in fancied security on the top of a mine which was liable to an explosion at any moment.
Various and contradictory accounts of the attack reached us at Kanagawa. As an authentic account has however been sent home by Mr. Alcock to Earl Russell and presented to both Houses of Parliament, I cannot do better than give an extract from it to the reader in Mr. Alcock's own words: —
"Yedo, July 6, 1861. — Before another night closes in, with its contingencies, which may well prevent my addressing your Lordship again, I am anxious to submit a simple statement of the events which have marked the last; for, whether I survive or not, it is essential that Her Majesty's Government should be well and duly informed of all that has taken place. We have escaped a massacre, but, seemingly, by the merest chance.
"I had only returned from Kanagawa four-and-twenty hours, bringing Mr. Morrison and another gentleman with me, on a visit to Yedo — the Legation being further augmented by Mr. Oliphant and Mr. Russell — when the long-threatened onslaught roused us all from our beds a little before midnight. Frequently as I had been warned that such a deed was actually in contemplation, I confess I felt incredulous when Mr. Robertson, who, previous to his retiring to rest, always takes the duty of going through the premises, came to tell me that there was a conflict going on outside, and that men were forcing their way through the gates. I bad barely time to seize my revolver and advance a few steps, when I heard blows and cries, and the report of a pistol in the passage which runs at the end of my apartment. The next moment both Mr. Oliphant and Mr. Morrison staggered forward, exclaiming that they were wounded, and I saw the blood flowing profusely from the former, whose left arm was disabled. Mr. Russell, Mr. Robertson, and Mr. Lowder followed; the rest of the Legation were missing. Uncertain how many our assailants were, or from how many quarters the attack might be effected (since a Japanese house is open on all sides, and every partition consists entirely of doors and windows only, or sliding-panels offering no resistance), a brief interval of intense anxiety followed, while I stood in momentary expectation of seeing men pour in from the passage in pursuit. After a short lull, some of the band were heard outside the apartment adjoining my bedroom breaking their way through some glazed doors. Exposed to attack from every side, with no sign of a yakoneen or guard, several minutes were thus passed, two of our number disabled, and the rest of us standing at bay with such arms as had been hastily seized. Our enemies had evidently mistaken their way, and the increased distance of the shouts and yells gave reason to hope they had at last been come up with by the yakoneens, and had sought their safety by leaving the house. To escape from a state of intolerable suspense I went towards the principal entrance for a moment, and to Mr. Macdonald's room, to ascertain, if possible, what had become of him. While on my way we thought they had returned in force, seeing at the further end of the passage a number of armed men advancing, who would not answer our challenge. A shot was fired by Mr. Lowder, and they disappeared. Still the noise and clamour and conflict continued outside; and it seemed very long indeed before we saw any of those (to the number of some 150) Tycoon's and Daimio's men who had been held to afford us such ample protection! At last, two or three of the officers permanently on service appeared to say that they hoped the house was clear, but begging us to keep together at one end while they made further search.
"I had now a moment of respite to turn to Messrs. Oliphant and Morrison and dress their wounds, though amidst alarms of renewed attack, which, I may add, recurred at frequent intervals until daybreak. . . . Most providentially the party, which seems to have been destined to penetrate the interior of the house and finish the work there, mistook their way to the part occupied by myself from the beginning, and where all who remained after the first alarm were speedily collected, as the most defensible position. Had they entered the grounds from that side (and nothing was easier), steps and a path led directly to my bedroom, and I should have most likely had no time to seize a weapon, for there was nothing to obstruct their entrance."
Fortunately for the little band in the Legation, the yakoneen guard, when it arrived, fought bravely, and the assailants were driven out of the premises. It would seem, therefore, that, owing to this on the one hand, and to the ignorance of the locality on the part of the loönins on the other, a general massacre was happily prevented.
"The next morning the Legation looked as if it had been sacked after a serious conflict. Screens and mats were all spotted with blood, the former thrown down, broken, and torn; furniture and bedding all hacked, books even cut through by their sabres, and the marks of fury and violence everywhere. That our guards fought, there is no doubt whatever; but it is equally clear that they were, as I always asserted, utterly ineffective against a surprise; and, in truth, they left the Legation, notwithstanding their great superiority in numbers, at least ten minutes to its own resources, during which time the loönins were in possession trying to discover the inmates."
It does not appear that the loss of life was very great in this band-to-hand encounter between the yakoneens and loönins, a circumstance which may possibly be accounted for by the attack taking place during the night. Of the Tycoon's and Daimio's men, two were killed and ten wounded; three of the loönins were nearly hacked to pieces, two wounded men were taken prisoners, and it was rumoured that two more committed the "harikari" next morning to avoid being arrested. The whole band of the attacking loönins was afterwards ascertained to have been fourteen in number.
"After such a night," writes Mr. Alcock, "comes a Governor of Foreign Affairs, deputed from the Ministers, gravely to felicitate me on my escape and return to Yedo, praying me to accept a basket of ducks and a jar of sugar in token of amity! Your Lordship will, I am sure, not blame me, that I desired the messenger to take his presents back with him, and tell his principal I desired justice and redress, not ducks or sugar, at the hands of his Government."
When the news of this attempted assassination reached us at Kanagawa and Yokuhama, the sensation created, both amongst natives and foreigners, was very great. Who were the loönins, and who or what had induced them to attempt the commission of such a fearful crime? Mr. Alcock and M. de Wit had just come overland from Osaca, although the Government had begged them not to do so, and warned them of the danger of such a proceeding at the present time. Great offence had been given, it was said, by their visit to one of Prince Fizin's coal-mines, although the road to it had been blocked up by a bamboo fence with a guard of soldiers behind it. It was also rumoured that a dispute for precedence had occurred on the road with a Daimio, who happened to be met travelling in a contrary direction, although it now appears from Mr. Alcock's despatch that he had given way to the great man, and for his politeness had been almost pushed into the ditch! As these reports were spread about, it was the opinion of many that this overland journey, in some way or other, had been the cause of the attack which had just taken place. On the other hand, it was argued, and with some reason, that, had the Government or offended Prince been the authors or instigators of the crime, it might have been much more easily and effectually accomplished on the journey than in the British Legation at Yedo.
In connection with this question there was a document found on one of the band who was wounded and made prisoner, to which a considerable amount of importance is due. Four translations of this document were made; one being official, while the other three were obtained from private sources. In the official copy the writer says, "He is a man of low degree, moved by the desire to do a great deed in honour of the sovereign — to expel the foreigner, as it is intolerable to stand by and see the sacred empire violated by the barbarians. To achieve honour for himself, as a devoted patriot, making the empire to sparkle in foreign regions by a great deed, while tranquillizing the Imperial mind, and benefiting the country by ridding it of the presence of the foreigner" — for these objects this worthy is willing to risk his life.
The translations furnished by private individuals are similar to the above; but one or two important things come out which would appear to have been suppressed in the official copy. Thus the writer does not say that he is "moved by the desire to do a great deed in honour of the sovereign," but "to follow out my master's will." In two of the private translations he takes it for granted that, if he can massacre the officers of the British Legation, "all foreigners will abandon Japan," or, "the land of the gods," and so procure him the favour of millions of his countrymen.
This paper appears to have been considered a genuine document by the Japanese authorities, and not, as some supposed, put into the man's pocket as a blind to mislead investigation as to the instigators of the deed. In one of their letters to Mr. Alcock they say — "Although your Excellency suggested that the attack was not made spontaneously on the part of the assailants, but that there was a secret director of it; yet, as we have always communicated to you, it was known that, in the early period of the opening of the ports, there were, among the persons of rank, some who disapproved of the conclusion of the treaties with foreign powers." Then they go on to state that, owing to the arrangements made from time to time by the Government, this prejudice amongst the higher ranks has entirely disappeared — an assertion which, I fear, is not "founded on fact" — and that "the occurrence is only ascribable to the acts of persons of low standing, who, from obstinate adhesion to the old custom of excluding foreign powers, persist in their feelings of partiality. The alteration in their nature will therefore be difficult, without allowing a long lapse of months and years." The Japanese Ministers remind Mr. Alcock that they had proposed to him in the beginning, when officers for his protection were appointed, their wish that a guard should be stationed, not only in the environs of the Legation, but even in the interior. "But your Excellency was altogether dissatisfied with it; so we left it to your will: hence the danger which has just happened." And thus these worthies prove three things, apparently to their own satisfaction — 1st, that persons of high rank were not the instigators of the deed; 2nd, that it was the work of prejudiced enthusiasts of low degree; and 3rd, that, had the English Minister taken their advice, the thing would not have happened.
Mr. Alcock, "after three weeks consumed in anxious inquiries as to the quarter from whence the blow had come and any future danger might be looked for," believes he has at last got at the real facts. In a despatch to Earl Russell he says "It has come to me from divers sources that the Prince of Tsusima, hearing that a great chief of the foreigners was at Nagasaki on his way to Yedo overland, immediately despatched emissaries to slay this chief on the road, and bring his head. . . . But I think the more recent versions [of the story] are also the more probable. These tell me that the Prince only sent a single emissary to follow me to Yedo, and there to find the fit instruments for his purpose (never far to seek, it seems), and bring him my head, after the massacre of every one about me. A plot to attack the Legations, the Consulates, or Yokuhama, together or successively, having long been a favourite plan among Mites disbanded followers and other desperate characters, it required but a signal from any chief immediately to get together the men necessary for an attack; and so it was suddenly resolved upon and carried into execution at the instigation of the Prince's emissary."
The true version of this story, whatever it may be, will probably never be known to foreigners, but that this is something near it there can be little doubt. I firmly believe the real instigator of the crime was some feudal prince, who was still hostile to foreigners, or perhaps was not unwilling to embroil his own Government in a quarrel which he supposed would in some way advance his interests. A feudal system exists in Japan at the present day not unlike that of our own Scottish Highlands a hundred years ago; and any chief can easily excite the passions of his retainers, and engage them in the most desperate enterprises. These retainers are very much like the Maclvors in Sir Walter Scott's 'Waverley' —
"The Maclvors, sir," says Alick Polwarth, Waverley's servant, "hae gotten it into their heads that ye hae affronted their young leddy, Miss Flora; and I hae heard mae than ane say they wadna tak muckle to make a black-cock o' ye; and ye ken weel eneugh there's mony o' them wadna mind a bawbee the weising a ball through the Prince himsell, an the Chief gae them the wink — or whether he did or no, if they thought it a thing that would please him when it was dune."
In a country like Japan, where every one acts as a spy upon his neighbour, it seems absurd to suppose that the Government was unable to find out the instigator of the attack on H. B. Majesty's Legation. Whether it durst denounce and punish was a very different matter, and extremely doubtful. Instead of being at once united and powerful, as it was at one time supposed to be, it resembles that of the Scottish kings in the feudal ages, when a combination of the powerful clans could always embarrass or overturn the Government. In addition to this, some of the Daimios would seem to derive their honours and offices direct from the Mikado, or Spiritual Emperor, and to be, to a certain extent, independent of the Tycoon. These, by way of fomenting troubles, ply the Mikado's court with disturbing rumours to the disadvantage of the rival but confessedly subordinate court at Yedo; and keep up the smouldering embers of a still possible explosion in the renewal of the old struggles between the true sovereign and the usurping General-in-chief, each backed by their partizans amongst the Daimios.3 This, therefore, is another element of weakness in the Government of Japan. We may, therefore, easily suppose that the Government well knew the instigator of the attack on H. M. Legation, and yet was afraid or unable to punish him.
With these difficulties to contend with, particularly in their relations with foreign powers and their subjects, the task of the Ministers of the Tycoon is not exactly an agreeable one. I believe they are sincere in their endeavours to protect foreigners from the dangers which surround them on every side, owing to the hatred and fanaticism of unfriendly Daimios and their retainers. Doubtless their suggestion to Mr. Alcock to have a guard inside the Legation was well meant; and their plan of surrounding the new settlement of Yokuhama, and placing guards on the different approaches — which some people found so much fault with — was intended for our protection. They knew the dangers to which we were exposed much better than we did ourselves, and took their own mode of averting them.
But in the present state of Japan, with the feudal system in full operation, with jealousies existing amongst the nobles; with bands of idle retainers roaming about the streets, always armed and not over-friendly to foreigners, the task of protecting us is no easy one. Those Ministers who agreed to make treaties with foreign nations did not foresee the difficulties and dangers they had to encounter in opening up a country which had been sealed to the rest of the world for nearly three hundred years. The future is now enveloped in thick darkness; but it is much to be feared that war and all its horrors may, at no distant day, be the penalty which this happy and peaceful land will have to pay for a reintroduction to the great family of nations.
While these pages have been going through the press the overland mail has brought us an account of another brutal murder, which was perpetrated on the Imperial highway, within a few miles of Yedo, on the 14th of September last. The murderers in this case were the retainers of the father of the Prince of Satsuma, and he is stated personally to have given the atrocious order. The following narrative of this sad transaction is taken from the 'Japan Herald:' —
"Yesterday afternoon, about two o'clock, a party left Yokuhama for a country ride, intending to cross to Kanagawa in a boat, and proceed thence on horseback to Kawasaki, where there is a fine temple. The party was composed of Mrs. Borradaile, the wife of a merchant at Hongkong; Mr. Marshall, her brother-in-law, a merchant of Yokuhama; Mr. W. Clarke, of the house of Messrs. A. Heard and Co.; and Mr. Richardson, who had just retired from business in China, and was on a visit to Japan, prior to his return to England. The community, at about half-past three o'clock in the afternoon, were startled by the return of Mrs. Borradaile on horseback at Mr. Gower's house, in a fearful state of agitation and disorder, her hands, face, and clothes bespattered with blood, her hat gone, and in a fainting state. She informed Mr. Gower that she had just ridden for her life over seven miles, and had escaped she knew not how from a most dastardly and murderous attack upon herself and her companions; that about four miles beyond Kanagawa, nearly half-way to Kawasaki, they had met part of a Daimio's train, consisting of a large body of two-sworded men, coming from Yedo, some of whom signed to them to move aside, which they did. They drew up their horses at the side of the road, but in consequence of continued signs to go back they turned their horses to return towards Kanagawa. Without a word, or the slightest further notice, some of the retainers drew their swords and fiercely attacked them. A cut was aimed at Mrs. Borradaile's head, which she fortunately avoided by quickly stooping, though her hat was cut away by the blow. The three gentlemen were badly wounded, and being entirely surrounded, and the road being for some distance lined by their assailants, and being themselves entirely unarmed, they had no course but to dash through them, and to endeavour thus to effect their escape. Mrs. Borradaile saw Mr. Richardson fall from his horse, as she supposed, dead, and the others were so badly wounded that Mr. Marshall told her to ride for her life and try to save herself, as he did not think they could keep up. She scarcely remembers what happened afterwards, but she recollects riding into the sea, preferring the risk of drowning to falling into the hands of these bloodthirsty miscreants. Her horse, however, regained the road, and continued his headlong course towards Yokuhama, twice falling under her. By some means she regained her seat, and arrived, fainting and exhausted, at the house mentioned. Fortunately Dr. Jenkins and Mr. Gower's brother entered the house at the moment, the former of whom administered the needful restoratives; and Mr. Gower's brother, at her earnest entreaties, went at once to Captain Vyse to endeavour to obtain assistance towards the recovery of the persons of her companions, all three of whom she imagined were lying dead in the road. The report at once flew round the settlement; and having learnt from others coming from Kanagawa that two of the party were lying dangerously wounded at the American Consulate at that place, while the third had been left weltering in his blood on the road, some three miles beyond, a large body of residents of all nationalities collected, and immediately started by water and by land for Kanagawa. Among the first was Dr. Jenkins, of Her Majesty's Legation, who had immediately procured his instruments to render what aid might lie in his power. On arriving at the American Consulate they found Mr. Marshall severely wounded in the side and back, while Mr. Clarke's left arm at the shoulder was nearly cut through, the sword having penetrated half through the bone. Their wounds, however, had been immediately attended to and dressed by Dr. Hepburn, of the American mission. From what was gathered from Mr. Clarke, the few who had arrived determined at once to proceed in search of Mr. Richardson, who had been seen by him also to fall from his horse exhausted. As they reached the main road they perceived Captain Vyse, accompanied by several residents on horseback, together with the mounted guard, proceeding on the same errand. . . . They continued on the road till they arrived at the half-way house between Kanagawa and Kawasaki, where they were joined by the French mounted guard, who had received orders from M. de Bellecourt. His Imperial Majesty's Envoy, to act in concert with Captain Vyse and those who accompanied him. Here they made inquiries, but could get no information, the people affecting entire ignorance upon the matter. A little boy, however, came forward and volunteered to point out where the body was lying; under his guidance they retraced their steps about half a mile, and found the body lying about ten yards off the road in a field, at the side of a small cottage. It was covered over with a couple of old mats, which, on being removed, revealed a most ghastly and horrible spectacle. The whole body was one mass of blood; one wound, from which the bowels protruded, extended from the abdomen to the back; another, on the left shoulder, had severed all the bones into the chest; there was a gaping spear-wound over the region of the heart; the right wrist was completely divided, and the hand was hanging merely by a strip of flesh; the back of the left hand was nearly cut through; and on moving the head, the neck was found to be entirely cut through on the left side. The two first-mentioned wounds had evidently been the first he had received, and had been given while he was on horseback; the last four, or certainly two of them, had been inflicted after he had fallen from his horse, if not after death. A litter having been hastily constructed, the party returned to Kanagawa with the body."
Poor Mr. Richardson! I knew him well. He was a fine manly specimen of a young Englishman, of a mild and conciliatory disposition, and not at all likely to give any wanton offence to the Japanese people. Why then was the party attacked, and why this brutal murder? They were riding along the Imperial highway, within the limits of the settlement provided by treaty with the Government of the Tycoon, and were apparently infringing no law. Perhaps their great offence was this: they did not turn back or out of the way quick enough when they saw the cortége of the great man approaching. But although this was probably the pretext for attacking them, other causes, lying far deeper than this, were not wanting. These are an intense hatred to foreigners of Western nations, and a dread of those innovations and changes which are seen to be coming upon the country, and which will eventually destroy the feudal power.
It is becoming clearer every day that the Government of the Tycoon, with whom we have made our treaties, is powerless to enforce those treaty rights. The feudal princes, with that curious personage the Mikado, or "Spiritual Emperor," are stronger than the Government at Yedo; and until a change takes place, resulting in the formation of a powerful Government either at Miaco or Yedo, and the destruction of the feudal system, there will, I fear, be little security for the lives of our countrymen in this part of the world. How this is to be accomplished, whether by civil war or by the interference of foreign powers, is at present uncertain.
It would seem that a kind of revolution has already taken place in Yedo. The 'Japan Herald' of October 25th says, "It was with no small surprise and dismay that the populace of Yedo learned this week that henceforth the highest Daimios are only to visit Yedo once in seven years, and then only for a hundred days at a time; the second class, once in three years only, and then for a hundred days; while the third are to remain as at present; but in their case, as in all the others, their wives and families are no longer to stay in Yedo as hostages, but are to return and to remain in the provinces. This change, it will be seen at a glance, is a great diminution of the splendour of the Tycoon's position. That these highest Daimios, seven years hence, will think of visiting Yedo for a hundred days, no one will be simple enough to believe, or that the second class will return is exceedingly doubtful. Thus shorn of its jewels, the crown of the Tycoonship becomes that of head of the lower Daimios only. The seat of power will probably, in no long time, be removed to Miaco."
A correspondent of the 'Times' (December 29) gives another and different version of the same story: —
"The Government of His Majesty the Tycoon of Japan issued a notification at Yedo on the 19th of October, to the effect that all Daimios or Princes (excepting only those of the blood Royal, and also those intrusted with the direction of affairs) should respectively withdraw to their principalities.
"Henceforth the Government make it no longer compulsory on them to reside at Yedo; they will be called up once in three years to the metropolis for the space of a hundred days.
"The Princes of Awarri, Mito, and Kishni, being of the blood Royal, they will reside at Yedo by turns of one year each, one remaining while the other two are permitted to withdraw to their ancestral territories.
"A further notification has been issued imposing sumptuary restrictions, and recommending economy, both in clothing and living, to the people of Japan, high and low.
"A brother of the late Tycoon has been appointed Prince Regent since the demise of the late Emperor up to the present crisis. He belonged to the priesthood, but, owing to his high consanguinity, coupled with his great talents, he has been summoned to this important post.
"N.B. It is impossible to assign the true motives for such sudden and radical changes, but it does appear as though the Government of the Tycoon was much stronger than has hitherto been conceded. It is thought possible that greater liberality to foreigners may follow these events, and that a variety of restrictions hitherto imposed upon native traders may be gradually removed."
If the latter version of this strange story prove to be the correct one, better days may be in store for Japan than we had dared to hope for. It is very difficult for foreigners to understand the proceedings of this remarkable people, and future events alone can enable us to comprehend those of the present or of the past.
1 Outlaws, or disgraced retainers.
2 Sir James Hope's Report to the Lords Commissioners of the Admiralty.
3 Mr. Alcock's despatch to Earl Russell.