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A SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY

I. GENERAL HISTORIES OF ANTIQUITY


Abbreviations

DuHA.…….…Duncker — The History of Antiquity (translated by Evelyn Abbott). 6 vols. London, 1877-1882.

MeyGA.……..Meyer — Geschichte des Altertums. I. Geschichte des Orients bis zur Begründung des Perserreichs. Stuttgart, 1881.

MaDC.………}Maspero — Histoire ancienne des peuples de l'orient classique.

MaSN.………}Translated as three separate volumes: I. The Dawn of Civilization;

MaPE.………}II. The Struggle of the Nations; III. The Passing of the Empires.

SPCK.………}London, 1894-1900 (New York: Appleton).

MeHPM.…….McCurdy — History, Prophecy, and the Monuments; or, Israel and the Nations. 3 vols. New York, 1894-1901. (3d Ed. revised of Vol. I. 1898, 2d Ed. of Vol. II. 1897).

RawlGM.……Rawlinson — The Five Great Monarchies of the Ancient Eastern World. 3 vols. New York, 2d Ed., 1871.

LenHA.………Lenormant — Histoire ancienne de l'orient jusqu'aux guerres médiques (continued by Babelon). 6 vols. Paris, 1881-1888.

HeWG.………Helmolt — Weltgeschichte. Band III. Westasien (by Winckler). Leipzig, 1901.

               Rommel — The Civilization of the East. Temple Primer. (Trans. from the author's Geschichte des alten Morgenlandes. Stuttgart, 1895). London, n. d.

                Belck — Beiträge zur alten Geographic und Geschichte Vorderasiens, I., II. Leipzig, 1901.

KrGAG.……..Krall — Grundriss der Altorientalischen Geschichte. Erster Theil: Bis auf Kyros. Wien, 1899.

WaESG.……Wachsmuth — Einleitung in das Studium der Alten Geschichte. Leipzig, 1895.

                Winckler — Die Volker Vorderasiens. Leipzig, 1899.



II. BABYLONIO–ASSYRIAN HISTORY

TiBAG.………Tiele — Babylonisch–Assyrische Geschichte, Zwei Teile. Gotha, 1886-1888.

HoGBA.……..Hommel — Geschichte Babyloniens und Assyriens. Berlin, 1885-1888.

WiGBA.……..Winckler, Geschichte Babyloniens und Assyriens. Leipzig, 1892.

MDelGBA.…..Mürdter–Delitzsch — Geschichte Babyloniens und Assyriens 2teAufl. Calw und Stuttgart. 1891.

RoHBA.……..Rogers — A History of Babylonia and Assyria. 2 vols. New York, 1900.

HoHBD.……..Hastings' Bible Dictionary — Articles "Assyria" and "Babylonia" by Hommel.

KiEBi.……….Encyclopædia Biblica — Articles "Assyria" and "Babylonia" by L. W. King.

MuBA.………Murison — Babylonia and Assyria: A Sketch of their History. (Bible Class Primers.) New York, 1901.

                 Winckler — Die politische Entwickelung Babyloniens und Assyriens. Leipzig, 1900.

                 Radau — Early Babylonian History down to the end of the fourth dynasty of Ur. New York, 1900.

BiS.…………Billerbeck — Susa. Leipzig, 1893.



III. TEXTS AND TRANSLATIONS

Rawl.……….Rawlinson — The Cuneiform Inscriptions of Western Asia. 5 vols. London, 1861-1884.

SchKB.……..Schrader (editor) — Keilinschriftliche Bibliothek. Sammlung von assyrischen und babylonischen Texten in Umschrift und Uebersetzung. Bd. I. Historische Texte des altassyrischen Reichs. Bd. II. Historische Texte des neuassyrischen Reichs. Bd. III. 1-Hälfte, Historische Texte altbabylonischer Herrscher; 2-Hälfte, Historische Texte des neubabylonischen Reichs. Bd. IV. Texte juristischen und geschäftlichen Inhalts. Bd. V. Thontafeln von Tel-el-Amarna. (English Translation, New York, 1898). Bd. VI. Assyrisch-Babylonische Mythen und Epen. Leipzig, 1889-1901.

             Layard — Inscriptions in the Cuneiform Character. London, 1851. Botta et Flandin, Monuments de Ninevé, I., III, et IV. Paris, 1849.

RP¹,².……….Records of the Past — Being English Translations of the Assyrian and Egyptian Monuments. I Series, 12 vols. London; II Series, 6 vols. London, 1888-1892.

ABL.………..Assyrian and Babylonian Literature — Selected Translations, with a Critical Introduction by R. F. Harper (The World's Great Books). New York, 1901.

HiOBI.………Hilprecht — Old Babylonian Inscriptions, chiefly from Nippur. Philadelphia, 1893.

Editions of inscriptions of particular rulers are given in the "References."


IV. GEOGRAPHY, TRAVEL, EXPLORATION, ETC.

                        Rich — Narrative of a Journey to the Site of Babylon in 1811. London, 1839. Narrative of a Residence in Koordistan and on the Site of Ancient Nineveh. London, 1836.

                         Loftus — Travels and Researches in Chaldea and Susiana. London, 1857.

LayNR.………Layard — Nineveh and its Remains. 2 vols, New York, 1849.

LayD.………..Discoveries in the Ruins of Nineveh and Babylon. London, 1853.

                 Chesney — The Expedition for the Survey of the Rivers Euphrates and Tigris. 2 vols. London, 1850.

                 Rassam — Asshur and the Land of Nimrod. New York, 1897.

                 Oppert —Expédition scientifique en Mesopotamie. 2 vols. Paris, 1863-1867.

PeN.…………Peters — Nippur; or, Explorations and Ad‑ventures on the Euphrates. 2 vols. New York, 1897.

                 Sachau — Reise in Syrien und Mesopotamien. Leipzig, 1883. Am Euphrat und Tigris, 1897-1898. Leipzig, 1900.

SmAD.………G Smith — Assyrian Discoveries: an Account of Explorations and Discoveries on the site of Nineveh, during 1873 and 1874. New York, 1875.

KaAuB.………Kaulen — Assyrien und Babylonien nachden neuesten Entdeckungen. 5te. Ausg. Freiburg, 1899.

SchKG.………Schrader — Keilinschriften und Geschichts‑forechung. Giessen, 1878.

DelP.………..Delitzsch — Wo Lag das Paradies? Leipzig, 1881.

HiRR.……….Hilprecht (editor) — Recent Research in Bible Lands. Philadelphia, 1896.

EvNL.……….Evetts — New Light on the Bible and the Holy Land. London, 1892.


V. RELIGION

The most important editions of texts are: King—Babylonian Magic and Sorcery, being "The Prayers of the Lifting up of the Hand." London, 1896.

                       Zimmern — Babylonische Busspsalmen. Leipzig, 1885.

              Beiträge zur Kenntniss der Babylonischen Religion. I. Die Beschwörungstafeln Shurpu. II. Ritualtafeln für den Wahrsager, Beschwörer und Sänger. Leipzig, 1896-1899.

                        Tallquist — Die Assyrische Beschwörungsserie Maqlû, 1894.

                        Knudtzson — Assyrische Gebete an den Sonnengott für Staat und Königliches Hans. 2 Bde. Leipzig, 1893.

                        Thompson — The Reports of the Magicians and Astrologers of Nineveh and Babylon. 2 vols. London, 1900.

The Treatises are:

JaRBA.……..Jastrow — Religion of Babylonia and Assyria. Boston, 1898.

KiBRM.……..King — Babylonian Religion and Mythology. London, 1899.

Lenormant — Chaldean Magic, its Origin and Development. London, 1877. Sayce—Lectures on the Origin and Growth of Religion as illustrated by the Religion of the Ancient Babylonians (Hibbert Lectures, 1887). London, 1887.

Jeremias — (in Saussaye, Lehrbuch d. Religionsgeschichte, 2te Ausg. Bd. I, 163221) — "Die Babylonier und Assyrer." Freiburg, 1897.

Tiele — (in Geschichte der Religion im Alter-turn, Bd. I, 127-216) — "Die Religion in Babylonien und Assyrien." Gotha, 1896.

Eerdmans — (in "Progress," 3d ser. 6, 403415) —"Babylonian-Assyrian Religion," Chicago, 1897.

Jeremias — Houle und Paradies bei den Babyloniern. Leipzig, 1900; English Translation, London, 1902.

VI. MANNERS AND CUSTOMS; ART AND LITERATURE

SaBaA.……..Sayce — Babylonians and Assyrians, Life and Customs (The Semitic Series). New York, 1899. Babylonian Literature. London, n. d.

PeiSBG.……Peiser — "Skizze der babylonischen Gesellschaft," in Mitteilungen der Vorderasiatischen Gesellschaft, I. 3, Berlin, 1896.

PCHACA.….Perrot and Chipiez — History of Ancient Art in Chaldæa and Assyria. 2 vols, London.

BMG.……….A Guide to the Babylonian and Assyrian Antiquities of the British Museum. London, 1900.

Bezold — Kurzgefasster Ueberblick über die Babylonisch-Assyrische Litteratur. Leipzig, 1886.

Ihering — The Evolution of the Aryan (trans, from the German). New York, 1897.

Babelon — Manual of Oriental Antiquities. New York, 1889.

Maspero — Life in ancient Egypt and Assyria. London, 1892.

Speck — Handelsgeschichte des Alterthums I. Leipzig, 1901.

VII. BABYLONIO-ASSYRIAN MONUMENTS AND THE BIBLE

Price — The Monuments and the Old Testament. Chicago, 1900.

Driver — (in "Authority and Archæology," edited by Hogarth) — "Hebrew Authority." pp. 1-152. New York, 1899.

Sayce — The Higher Criticism and the Verdict of the Monuments. London, 1894.

Hommel — The Ancient Hebrew Tradition as illustrated by the Monuments. London, 1897.

Schrader — The Cuneiform Inscriptions and the Old Testament- 2 vols.

KAT³.………Die Keilinschriften und das Alte Testament. 3te Aufl. 1-Hälfte, bearb. von H. Winckler. Berlin, 1902.

                Cheyne — (in "The Hexateuch" by Carpenter and Harford-Battersby, vol. I. pp. 164-171).

Wi.…………..Winckler — (see above under Schrader). Ball—Light from the East, or the Witness of the Monuments. London, 1899.

                        Vigouroux — La Bible et les découvertes modernes. 6th ed. 4 vols- Paris, 1896.


VIII. COLLECTIONS OF ESSAYS, SERIES, JOURNALS, ETC.

WiUAG.…….Winckler—Untersuchungen zur Altoriental‑ischen Geschichte. Leipzig, 1889. Alttestamentliche Untersuchungen. Leipzig, 1892.

WiAOF.…….Winckler — Altorientalische Forschungen. Erste Reihe, Heft 1-6; Zweite Reihe, Bd. I., Bd. II. Heft 1. Leipzig, 1893– .

                       BA  Delitzsch und Haupt — Beiträge zur Assyriologie, Bd. I.–IV. Leipzig, 1890.

MVAG.……..Mittheilungen der Vorderasiatischen Gesellschaft (yearly volumes in parts). Berlin, 1896.

ZK.………….Bezold (editor) — Zeitschrift für Keitschrift- forschung. Leipzig, 1884-1885.

ZA.…………Zeitschrift für Assyriologie. Leipzig, 1886..

EncyBrit.…..Encyclopædia Britannica.

EBi.………...Encyclopædia Biblica, edited by Cheyne.

DB.………A Dictionary of the Bible, edited by Hastings.

AJSL.……..The American Journal of Semitic Languages and Literatures (continuing Hebraica).


IX. CHRONOLOGY

Lehmann — Zwei Hauptprobleme der altorientalischen Chronologie. Berlin, 1898.

Niebuhr — Die Chronologie der Geschichte Israels, Aegyptens, Babyloniens u. Assyriens. Leipzig, 1896.

Rost — Untersuchungen zur altorientalischen Geschichte, MVAG, II. 2, 1897.

Winckler — Zur babylonisch-assyrischen Chronologie. UAG. Leipzig, 1889.




REFERENCES

INTRODUCTION


I


THE LANDS OF THE EUPHRATES AND TIGRIS

The classical descriptions of Mesopotamia are those of Herodotus, I. 193, Strabo, XVI. 1, and Pliny, N. H. XVIII. 17, The most complete modern discussion still remains that of Rawlinson in GM, I, 1-42 ("Chaldæa"), and 180-235 ("Assyria"), including land, climate, and productions. Compare EncyBrit, arts. "Babylonia," "Mesopotamia;" MaDC, 547.-560; MaSN, 597602; RoHBA, I. 266-289; TiBAG, I. 50-58; HoGBA, 180-195; KaAuB, ch. ii.; KiEBi, I- cols. 350, 420; HoHBD, I. 176, 214. The books of travel referred to in the Bibliography IV. may also be profitably consulted. Excellent maps in HBD, I. 176; EBi (art. "Assyria").


II


THE EXCAVATIONS IN BABYLONIA AND ASSYRIA

The most exhaustive account of the exploration of the lands of the Tigris and Euphrates, the excavation of the ruin-sites and the decipherment of the monuments, is that in RoHBA, I, 1-253. Less complete but accurate and more or less readable accounts are found in ABL, iii-xxxii (R, F. Harper); a series of articles by the same scholar in the Old and New Testament Student, XIV. 1 and 2, and the Biblical World, I. 4 and 5; VIII. 1; HoGBA, 58-146; KaAuB, chs. Iii., v., vi.; Delitzsch, "Assyrian Grammar," 1-8. Compare also Lyon, "A Half Century of Assyriology," in Bib. World, VIII. 2.

The narratives of the explorers and excavators contain material of the first importance and the deepest interest. The student would do well to dip into LayNR and read vol. I. ch. iii. or vol. II. ch. xiii.; and PeN, vol. I. ch. xi. or vol. II. ch. iii., to catch a glimpse of the actual experiences of the workers.


III


THE LANGUAGE AND LITERATURE

See references for ch. ii. (decipherment of inscriptions) and EvNL, ch. iv.; Mahaffy, "Prolegomena to Ancient History," 167-212; On the "Sumerian" problem the leading discussions on opposite sides are Weissbach, "Die Sumerische Frage" (for "Sumerian" ), and Halévy, "Le Sumérisme et l'histoire babylonienne" (against "Sumerian"). Compare also McHPM, T. sects. 79-85; and his article in Pres. and Ref. Review, II. 6; HBD, art. "Accad" and lit. there cited. HoGBA, 237-258, sketches the Old "Sumerian" civilization with unwarranted certainty.

Besides the works On the literature cited in the Bibliography, the religious literature is treated most fully in JaRBA (see table of cont.); Jastrow has also written on "The Text Book Literature of the Babylonians" in the Bib. World, IX. 4. Compare ABL, xxxiv-lxii, for an excellent summary of the whole subject, as also KaAuB, ch. vii. Translations of these texts are referred to in the Bibliography. See also "References" to Part I. chs. iii. and iv.


IV 


CHRONOLOGY AND HISTORY

See Bibliography under IX. "Chronology" for special treatises. Good general discussions are found in RoHBA, I. 312-348; Paton, "Oriental Chronology" in Bib. World, July, 1901. A thoroughgoing article with valuable texts but not altogether up to date is that by Winckler, "Zur babylonisch-assyrischen Chronologie," in UAG, 1-46; see also Wi, "Zur babylonisch-assyrischen Geschichte" in AOF, I. 5. On Herodotus as a trustworthy oriental historian some controversy has arisen; see Sayce in the preface to his "Ancient Empires of the East," and Tolman and Stevenson "Herodotus and the Empires of the East" which is based on Nikel, "Herodot und die Keilschriftforschung." WaESG has excellent material on Berosus, Ctesias, and Ptolemy (see index). TiBAG, 12-49, goes thoroughly into the sources. The Kings' List is translated in SchKB, II. 286 f., RP², I. 13 f. (compare the Introduction); the Assyrian Limu List (Eponym Canon) in SchKB, I. 204 ff., III. ii. 143 ff., RP², II. 110 ff.


PART I. — THE CITY STATES OF BABYLONIA AND THEIR UNIFICATION UNDER BABYLON

I


THE DAWN OF HISTORY

See the histories: MaDC, 560-564; HoGBA, 195-263 (the cities), 269-280 (the surrounding peoples); TiBAG, 81-90 (the cities); McHPM, I. 77-95. The fragments of Berosus are found in Cory, "Ancient Fragments," London 1876. A readable article is Sayce, "The Antiquity of Civilized Man," in Am. Jour. of Theology, V. 4; DeIP gathers material on the early sites and districts; Lenormant, "The Beginnings of History," New York 1893, discusses the problems of early traditions. Map for period of beginnings down to 1100 B. C. in HeWG, lII. 10.


II


MOVEMENTS TOWARD EXPANSION AND UNIFICATION

MaDC, 595-620; TiBAG, 100-124; HoGBA, 281-374; McHPM, I. 96-132; WiGBA, 18-49; MDelGBA, 72-84; RoHBA, 349-385. The texts are gathered in SchKB, III. i. Those found at Nippur are in Hilprecht, "Old Babylonian Inscriptions," vol. I. pts. 1 and 2, with valuable introductions. The chief Gudea texts have been published by Price, "The Great Cylinder Inscriptions (A and B) of Gudea," I., and English translations of these and other inscriptions of early rulers are made by Amiaud in RP², I. and II., "The Inscriptions of Telloh." The original publication of the Tello material was made by De Sarzec-Heuzey, "Découvertes en Chaldée." Compare EvNL, ch. V.; HiRR, "Explorations in Babylonia," 43 ff. Radau, "Early Babylonian History," New York 1900, collects and discusses thoroughly, though in a confused and difficult fashion, all this early material, and is indispensable for detailed study. On Gen. xiv. there are discussions in the works mentioned under VII. "Babylonio-Assyrian Monuments and the Bible" in the Bibliography. Compare King, "Letters and Inscriptions of Hammurabi," I. xlix f. and EBi, art. "Chedorlaomer." The chronological problems of this chapter, revolving about the date of Sargon, have been recently attacked by Lehmann, "Zwei Hauptprobleme d. altorient. Chronologie," 1898. See Wi, "Die altmesopotamischen Reiche," in UAG, 65-90, and "Die politische Entwickelung Altmesopotamiens," in AOF, I.i.


III AND IV


CIVILIZATION OF OLD BABYLONIA

Besides the works mentioned in Bibliography VI. "Manners and Customs" and V. "Religion," compare chapters on the Babylonio-Assyrian civilization in DuHA, I. ii. chs. ii. and iii.; MaDC, 535-546, 623-700, 703-784; TiBAG, II. 485 ff. (summarizes the whole subject under "Die babylonisch-assyrische Kultur"); HoGBA, 375-406; McHPM, I.27-76; WiGBA, 5056; RawlGM, I. 61 ff.; LenHA, V. livre vi. (summarizes the whole as Tiele); MeyGA, I. 172-193; HeWG, 31-42, Simcox, "Primitive Civilizations," I. bk. ii. Texts of business documents with translations in SchKB, IV. and Meissner, "Beiträge zum Altbabylonischen Privatrecht," Leipzig 1893. On ancient Babylonian science compare the standard work of Jensen, "Die Kosmologie der Babylonier," Strassburg 1890; HBD, art. "Cosmogony" and EncyBrit. under same head.

On art, besides the great work of Perrot and Chipiez (see Bibl. VI.), compare Reber, "Ueber altchaldische Kunst," ZA, I. and II.

On the literature strictly so called, see Sayce, "Babylonian Literature," London, n. d.; Id., "The Literary Works of Ancient Babylonia" in ZK, I.; brief summaries of the Epics, etc., in HoHBD, I. 220-222; Geo. Smith, "The Chaldean Account of Genesis," N. Y. n. d. (full accounts of the legends, etc.); KiBRM, chs. iii.-v. An excellent discussion of the forms of the clay tablets, etc. in KiEBi, I. cols. 428 f.


V


THE TIMES OF KHAMMURABI OF BABYLON

MaSN, 19-50; TiBAG, 124-127; HoGBA, 407-417; McHPM, I. 132-142; WiGBA, 57-68; MDelGBA, 84-89; RoHBA, I. 386-397. The standard edition of the texts is King, "The Letters and Inscriptions of Hammurabi," 3 vols., London 1898-1900 (translations in vol. III.), introductions especially valuable. On the changes in civilization and religion, see WiGBA, 69-76, and JaRBA, ch. viii. An important article on chronology is Lindl, "Die Datenlist der ersten Dynastie von Babylon," BA, IV. 3.


PART II — THE RISE OF ASSYRIA AND ITS STRUGGLES WITH KASSITE BABYLONIA


I AND II


THE KASSITE CONQUEST AND ASSYRIAN WARS

MaSN, 111-120, 588-612; TiBAG, 127-149; HoGBA, 418513; McHPM, I. 142-151, 206-218; WiGBA, 77-100, 169171; MDelGBA, 89-94, 142-150; RoHBA, I. 398-429, II. 1-20. Delitzsch has written especially on the Kassites in his "Die Sprache der Kossäer," Leipzig 1884; see also Wi., "Die babylonische Kassitendynastie" in AOF, I. 2. The texts are in SchKB, III. i., ABL, 3 ff. (Agumkakrime), 217 ff. (Tel-el-Amarna), Winckler, "The Tel-el-Amarna Letters," London 1896 (English trans. of entire collection). HiOBI, I. i. has a valuable discussion of the Kassite kings. The "Synchronistic History" is translated in ABL, 196 ff., RP², IV. 24 ff. The early texts of the "Babylonian Chronicle" are in RP², V. 106 ff. For the other chronological documents, see "References" to Int. ch. IV.

The literature on the Tel-el-Amarna letters is large. Compare EvNL, chs. vi.-viii.; Tiele, "Western Asia according to the Most Recent Discoveries," London; Ball, "Light from the East," 86 ff.; Sayce in RP², II.-III., V. with translations. For the early patesis of Assyria, see Johns, "A new Patesi of Ashur," in AJSL, XVIII. 3.


III


CIVILIZATION AND CULTURE IN THE KASSITE PERIOD

On the Kassite civilization and early Assyrian conditions, see WiGBA, 101-110,140-151, 163-168; MaSN, 617-642; MeyGA, I. 334-336; KiEBi, cols. 351 f., 363 f., 446 f.; HoHBD, 180 f., 227. For the special interest of the Kassite kings in Nippur, see HiOBI, I. i. 30 f., and PeN, index s. v. "Kossean."


IV


THE TIMES OF TIGLATHPILESER I

MaSN, 642-670; TiBAG, 147-166; HoGBA, 514-537; McHPM, I. 219-223; WiGBA, 171-176; KrGAG, 104-107; MDelGBA, 150-156; RoHBA, II. 21-34. Texts and trans. are found in SchKB, II. 14-49 and in Lotz, "Die Inschr. Tiglath Pileser I.," Leipzig 1880. Trans. in RP², I. 86 ff.; ABL, 11 ff. On the dynasty of Pashe, see HiOBI, I. i. 38 ff. The Neb. deed of gift is trans. in ABL, 8 ff. The relations of Assyr. and Bab. are given in the Syn. Hist., col. ii. See EncyBrit. arts. "Armenia" and "Kurdistan" for geography. See also Meissner, "Der elamitische Feldzug Tiglathpileser I." in ZA, X. 101 f. Map for period 1100-745 B. C. in HeWG, III. 55.


PART III. — THE ASCENDANCY OF ASSYRIA.


I


THE ANCIENT WORLD AT THE BEGINNING OF THE FIRST MILLENNIUM

WiGBA, 176-181; RoHBA, IL 35-45; McHPM, I. 243-245; PaEHSP, 181-198; KAT³, I. 38 f.


II


ASHURNAÇIRPAL III. AND THE CONQUEST OF MESOPOTAMIA


MaPE, 3-51; TiBAG, 166-186; HoGBA, 538-588; WiGBA, 181-190; McHPM, I. 261-266; KrGAG, 125-131; RoHBA, II. 46-71; KAT³, I. 39-41. Texts, etc.: SchKB, I. L 50-129; ABL, 28-30; RP², II. 128-177, IV. 80. On the campaigns in the north, see the important papers of Streck, "Das Gebiet der heutigen Landschaften Armenien, Kurdistan und Westpersien nach den babylonisch-assyrischen Keilinschriften" beginning in ZA, XIII. 57. On the Syrian campaign, see PaEHSP, 199-202. For the Nabupaliddin inscription, see ABL, 30-33, and BMG, 128. On Assyrian officials, see WiGBA, 209 f., and Delitzsch, "Assyrische Studien," 129-135. On the palace at Kalkhi, see LayNR, I. ch. iii.



III


THE ADVANCE INTO SYRIA AND THE RISE OF URARTU. FROM SHALMANESER II. TO THE FALL OF HIS HOUSE


MaPE, 52-114; TiBAG, 186-216; HoGBA, 589-647; WiGBA, 191-220; McHPM, I. 267-306; KrGAG, 131-141; RoHBA II. 47-103; KAT³, I. 41-49; arts. "Shalmaneser" in EBi and DB. Texts, etc.: Amiaud and Scheil: "Les Inscriptions de Salmanasar II.," Paris 1890; KB, I. i. 128-193; RP², IV. 38-79, 86-89; Hebraica, II. 140-146, III. 201-231; ABL, 33-52. on the Black Obelisk, see LayNR, I. 282 f.; on Imgur-bel gates, see PSBA, VII. 89-111. For the Babylonian Chronicle, see ABL, 200; RP², I. 22 ff. On the civilization of the time, see MeyGA,1. 420-424. On the western campaigns, see PaEHSP, 205-224. On the kingdom of Urartu, see the inscriptions trans. by Sayce, JRAS, new ser., XIV. 388 ff., RP² I. 163 f., IV. 114 f., and the epoch-making discoveries and investigations of Belck and Lehmann, Zeitschr. f, Ethnol., 1892, 131 f.; Verhand. d. Ber. anthrop. Gesellsch., 1892-1896; ZA, IX. 83 ff., XI. 197 ff., and Streck, articles cited, ZA, XIV. 103 ff. (an excellent collection of materials).


IV


THE ASSYRIAN REVIVAL. TIGLATHPILESER III. AND SHALMANESER 1V.

MaPE, 117-218; TiBAG, 217-238; HoGBA, 648-678 WiGBA, 221-235; McHPM, I. 323-338, 347-358, 372-395; KrGAG, 141-146; RoHBA, II. 104-147; KAT1, I. 49-63; arts. Tp. III, and Shal. IV. in EBi and DB. Texts, etc.; Rost, "Keilschrifttexte Tiglath Pileser III." Leipzig 1893; ABL, 52­58; RP², V, 115 ff.; KB, I. ii. 2-33; SmAD, ch. xiv, For the north-Syrian campaigns, see the inscriptions from Samal in MaOS, XI., Berlin 1893, and PaEHSP, 229-244; Jeremias, "Tyrus," Leipzig 1891, 27 ff.; Wi, "Das Syrische Land Jaudi," usw. in AOF, I, i.; Wi, Assyrien u, Tyrus seit Tp. III., AOF, II. i. 65-70.


V


THE ASSYRIAN EMPIRE AT ITS HEIGHT. SARGON II.

MaPE, 221-273; TiBAG, 238-282; HoGBA, 678-741 (here the house of Sargon is treated as a whole); WiGBA, 236-249; McHPM, I. 395-401, II. 237-247, 266-271; KrGAG, 146-152; RoHBA, II, 148-182; MeyGA, I. 460-463; KAT³, I. 63-75; arts. "Sargon" in EBi and DB. Texts, etc.: Winckler, "Die Keilschrifttexte Sargon's," Leipzig 1889; Lyon, "Keilschrifttexte Sargon's," Leipzig 1883; KB, I. ii. 34-81; ABL, 59-64; SmAD, ch. XV. For the Mardukbaliddin inscr., see ABL, 64­68. On the civilization of the Sargonid age, see WiGBA, 293-302, and a brilliant sketch in Maspero, "Life in anc. Egypt and Assyria," London 1892. On the Sargon palace, see the great illustrated works of Botta and Place; KaAuB, ch. iv., and PCHACA, On the western expeditions, see PaEHSP, 244-251; Jeremias, "Tyrus," 30; Wi, "Die Sargoniden und Egypten," usw., in UAG, 91-108; "Samal unter Sargon," AOF, H. i. 71-73. On the Elamite wars, see BiS, 77-82. On Muçri, see Wi, "Musri, Melukha, Main," in MVAG, III. i. and iv.; and in AOF, .I i.; AT, Untersuchungen, 168-174; also KATE, I. 136-153.


VI


THE STRUGGLE FOR IMPERIAL UNITY. SENNACHERIB

MaPE, 273-346; TiBAG, 285-325; WiGBA, 249-259; McHPM, II. 272-302, 322-332; KrGAG, 152-157; RoHBA, IL 183-215; KATE, I. 75-86; arts, "Senn." in EBi and DB. Texts, etc.: Smith (G), "History of Sennacherib," London 1878; SchKB, I. ii. 80-119; Pognon, "L'inscr. de Bavian," Paris 1879; RP², VI, 80-101; ABL, 68-80; SmAD, ch. xvi. Meissner u. Rost, "Bauinschriften Sanheribs."

On the western campaigns, see PaEHSP, 251-262; Jeremias, "Tyrus," 31 ff. On the Elamite campaigns, see BiS, 82-92; and for the Battle of Khalule, Haupt, in Andover Review, May, 1886. On topography of Nineveh, see SmAD, ch. vi., and Billerbeck u. Jeremias, "Der Untergang Nineveh's," in BA, III. 87-188.


VII


IMPERIAL EXPANSION AND DIVISION, ESARHADDON

MaPE, 346-381; TiBAG, 325-351; WiGBA, 259-272; McHPM, II. 333-350; KrGAG, 157-159; RoHBA, II. 216­245; KATE, I. 86-92; arts, "Esarh." in EBi and DB. Texts, etc.: Budge, "History of Esarhaddon," London 1880; Harper, "Esarhaddon Inscr," (cyl. A and B), New Haven 1888; SchKB, I. ii. 120-153; ABL, 80-94; Meissner u. Rost, "Bauinschr. Asarh.," in BA, III. 189-362; the Samal inscription in MaOS, Ausgr. in Sendschr. i. 36-41; SmAD, ch. xvii. For the western campaigns, see PaEHSP, 262-265; Jer., "Tyrus," 35 f.; AOF, II. i. 11 ff. For the northern campaigns and the oracles thereupon, see Knudtzson, Gebete (Bibliog. III.).


VIII


THE LAST DAYS OF SPLENDOR. ASHURBANIPAL

MaPE, 381-442, 459-464; TiBAG, 351-400; WiGBA, 272­302; McHPM, II. 351-390; KrGAG, 159-164; RoHBA, II. 246-282; MeyGA, I. 480-482,483-496; KAT ³, I. 92-98; arts. "Ashurb." in EBi and DB. Texts, etc.: Smith (G.), "History of Ashurbanipal," London 1871; Smith (S. A.), "Keilschrifttexte Asurbanipals," Leipzig 1887-1889; SchKB, I. ii. 152­269; ABL, 94-130; Sm AD, ch. xviii.

For the Babylonian campaigns, see Lehmann, "Shamashshumukin," Leipzig 1892; BiS, 96-120; ABL, 130f. On the Western campaigns, see PaEHSP, 265-270; Jer., "Tyrus," 37 ff.; Haupt, "Wateh-ben-Hazael," in Hebraica, I. 4. On the art and literature of the time, see PCHACA, DuHA, III. iv. ch. ix., and for the library, Rassam, "Asshur," etc., 31; Menant, "La Bibliothek du Palais de Ninevé."


IX


THE FALL OF ASSYRIA

MaPE, 445-458; TiBAG, 400-415; HoGBA, II. 742-746; McHPM, II. 391-414; WiGBA, 290-292; KrGAG, 165-169; RoHBA, II. 283-295; KAT³, I. 104 f.; Billerbeck and Jeremias, "Der Untergang Nineveh's," usw. in BA, III. 87-188; Johnston, "The Fall of the Assyrian Empire" in Studies in honor of B. L. Gildersleeve, Balt. 1902. Texts, etc.: SchKB, I. ii. 268-273; for the Nabuna'id inscriptions, see ABL, 158-168; Messerschmidt, "Die Stele Nabuna'id's" in MVAG, I. i.; for the Greek fragments, see Cory, "Ancient Fragments," etc., London 1876, 83-90. See Wi, "Zur Medischen u. altpersischen Gesch." in UAG, 109-132, and "Kimmerier, Ashguzäer, Skythen," in AOF, I. vi.; KAT1, I. 100-103.


PART IV. —THE NEW BABYLONIAN (OR KALDEAN) EMPIRE


I


THE HEIRS OF ASSYRIA

MaPE, 486-518; TiBAG, 416-424; WiGBA, 303-310; Ro HBA, II. 297-315. Texts, etc.: SchKB, III. ii. 2-9; ABL, 131- 134. On the Kaldi, see Wi, "Die Stellung der Chaldäer in der Gesch.," in UAG, 47-64.


II


NEBUCHADREZZAR AND HIS SUCCESSORS

MaPE, 518-567; TiBAG, 424-441, 454-458; HoGBA, 749­777; WiGBA, 311-314; McHPM, III. 143-171, 220-244, 268­305; KrGAG, 170-182; RoHBA, II. 316-358; MeyGA, I. 587-592; KAT³, I. 106-110; arts. "Nebuchadrezzar " in EBi and DB; Harper, "Nebuchadnezzar, King of Babylon," in Bib. World, XIV. 1. Texts, etc.: SchKB, III. ii. 10-79, 140 f.; ABL, 134-157; RP², III. 102-123.

For the western campaigns, see PaEHSP, 271-278; Jer, "Tyrus," 40-48. For the religion of Neb. see JaRBA, chs. xiv., xvii. 295-299. For the fortifications of Bab., see Billerbeck, "Nebuchadnezzar's Befestigung," usw. MVAG, III. ii. For Wi's theory of Bab. politics, see "Zur inneren Politik," usw. AOF, II. ii. 1, and KAT³, I. 108-112.


III


BABYLONIA UNDER THE KALDEANS

TiBAG, 441454; McHPM, III. 152-159, 321-393; WiGBA, 320-325; RawlGM, II, 497-580, III. 1-33. See also SaBaA (passim); PeiSBG, in MVAG, I. iii. (passim); Marx, "Die Stellung der Frauen," usw. BA, IV. 1-77; EvNL, chs. x., xi., xvi. For the religion, see JaRBA, ch. xiv.

Texts of business documents in SchKB, IV. 176 ff,; Kohler u, Peiser, "Aus dem Babylonischen Rechtsleben," Leipzig 1891; RP², III. 124 f., IV. 96 ff., V. 141 f. On Babylon, see a popular sketch of recent discoveries by Jastrow, "The Palace and Temple of Nebuchadnezzar," Harper's Mag. Apr. 1902, and the official reports in Mitteilungen d. Deu. Orient-Gesellschaft, 6 ff.; also McGee, "Zur Topographie Babylons," usw. in BA, III. 520-560.


IV


THE FALL OF BABYLON.

MaPE, 567f.; TiBAG, 459-484; HoGBA, 777-790; WiGBA, 315-319; McHPM, III. 393-414; KrGAG, 182-184; RoHBA, II. 359-381; KATE, I. 110-115. Texts, etc.: SchKB, IlI., ii. 80-139; ABL, 157-174; RP², V. 144-176. See Hagen "Keilschrifturkunden zur Gesch. d, k. Cyrus," in BA, II. 1, and the Bibliography under VII. "Bab. Assyr. Mon. and the Bible."


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