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CHRONOLOGICAL SUMMARY

By 5000 B.C.                      City-states flourish in South Babylonia.
About 4500-2250               Expansion and Conflicts of City-states.
   "        4500                        Enshagsagana, of Kengi, victor over Kish.
   "        4400                        Mesilim, king of Kish, victor over Shirpurla.
   "        4200                    Dynasty of Ur Nina, king of Shirpurla, victor over Gishban; Stele of Vultures.
   "        4000                       Lugalzaggisi, king of Gishban, ruler as far as the Mediterranean.
   "        3850                        Alusharshid, of Kish, conqueror of Elam.
   "        3800-3750              Sargon, king of Agade, and his son Naram Sin, lords of the Mediterranean coast-land,
                                                     of northern Mesopotamia, and of Elam.
   "        3500                         Ur Bau and other patesis of Shirpurla.
   "        3100                         Gudea, patesi of Shirpurla,
   "        3000                         Ur Gur and Dungi I., kings of Ur, kings of Shumer and Akkad.
   "        2900                         Kings of Uruk and Isin,
   "      2800-2500           Second Dynasty of Ur; Dungi IL, lord of the West.
   "      2450-2300           Migrations and Invasions: Arabians and Elamites enter Babylon,
   "        2400-2100               First Dynasty of kings of Babylon.
   "        2290                         Rim Sin, Elamite king of Larsam, king of Shumer and Akkad.
   "      2297-2254             Khammurabi, king of Babylon, victor over the Elamites,
unifier of Babylonia.
   "        2188-2151               Ammiditana, of Babylonia, king of the West.
   "        2085-1717               Second Dynasty of Babylonian kings.

ln the centuries before 2000 B. C. Babylonian influence, political and commercial, was predominant in the Mediterranean coast-lands.


Babylonia B. C. Assyria Other Countries
Migrations and Invasions. The world of Western
Asia disturbed on every side. Babylonia
entered by the Kassites






Third Dynasty of Babylon: Kassite kings of
Karduniash
Agumkakrime, king of Babylon
Boundary settlement between Kara-indash
of Babylon and Ashurbelnisheshu
Kadashman Bel
Burnaburyas I.
Kurigalzu I.
Burnaburyas II.
Kara Khardash
Marries daughter of Ashuruballit
Kadashmankharbe
Suzigas (Nazibugas), usurper
Kurigalzu II.
     Victor over Elam and Assyria


Nazimaruttash
Kadashmanburyas



            Four Babylonian kings are defeated by the
                 Assyrian conqueror Tukulti Ninib


          Adadshumuçur
          Milishikhu, victory over Assyria
          Mardukbaliddin, lord of the Mesopotamian
               valley
          Zamatnashumiddin
          Belahumiddin: last Kassite king

Fourth Dynasty of Babylonia (Pashe)
          Nebuchadrezzar I.: victor over Elamites,
               reaches the Mediterranean, wars with
              Assyria
          Beluadinaplu
          Marduknadinakhi
               Invades Assyria but is driven back




          Marduksapikzerim

          Adadapluiddin
               Peace between Babylon and Assyria

Fifth Dynasty of Babylonia (three Sea Kings)
Sixth Dynasty of Babylonia (three kings of
     Bazi)
Seventh Dynasty of Babylonia (the Elamite)
     Probable invasions of Babylonia: the Kaldi
     in the south, the Elamites and other
     peoples in the east, the Arameans in the
     east and north


Tiglathpileser II.: founder of a new line; beginning of
     Assyrian recovery

Ashurdan II.

Adadnirari II.: victory over Babylonia; limu
     list begins


Tukulti Ninib II.: campaigns in the north

Ashurnaçirpal III.: Assyrian ascendancy
     established (1) in the north, campaigns in 885,
     884, 883, 880, 867; in the east, campaigns in
     882, 881; in west Mesopotamia, campaigns in
     884, 879, 878-875?; march to Mediterranean,
     876? Capital at Kalkhi
Shalmaneser II.: incessant war; campaigns in
   (1) Babylonia, 852, 851, (2) west Mesopotamia,
     851-856, (3) south Syria (Damascus), 854, 849,
     846, 842, 839, (4) middle Syria, 850, 843, 841,
     832, (5) north Syria and N. w., 840, 838, 837,
     836, 834, (6) north, 860, 855, 853, 845,833, 831‑
     828, (7) east, 844, 836

          insurrection of Ashurdaninpal

Shamshi Adad IV.: insurrection quelled by
   822; three campaigns in north, six in Baby-
     Ionia; the west abandoned.

Adadnirari III.: brilliant restoration of Assyrian
     power in Syria, submission of Damascus, cam‑
     paigns of 806-803, 797; eight campaigns against
     Medes, reached the Caspian; six campaigns in
     N. E.; friendship with Babylonia.
Shalmaneser III.: decline;        campaigns against
     (1) Arameans of north Babylonia, (2) Urartu
     (6 yrs.), (3) Damascus 773
Ashurdan III.: decline ; campaigns in central
     Syria (Hatarika), 772, 765
          Eclipse of the Sun: rebellion in Assur
Ashurnirari II.: against Arpad 754
     Rebellion in Kalkhi; collapse of the dynasty


Tiglathpileser III.: restoration of Assyrian au-
     thority on all sides; campaigns in (I) Baby-
     Ionia against Arameans, 745, against Kaldi,
     731, 729, 728, (2) east, 744, 737, (3) north, 739,
     736, 735, (4) Syria, against Arpad, 743-740,
     region of Hamath, 738, Damascus, Israel and
     Philistia, 734-732







Shalmaneser IV.: campaign against rebellion in
     Syria and Palestine, 725; siege of Samaria,
     724-722
Sargon: Assyria at its height;        campaigns in
     (1) Babylonia, 721, 710-709, (2) west, 722, 720
     (Hamath), 715 (Arabia), 711 (Ashdod), (3)
     north, 719, 716-714, (4) N. w., 718, 717, 715,
     713-708

          Assyria vs. Urartu; humiliation of Urartu









City of Dur Sharrukin built and made capital of
     Assyria
Sennacherib: campaigns in (1) east, 702, (2)
     N. W., 697, (3) Babylonia, 703, 700, 695-694, 692
     (Elam), 691, 690, (4) Phoenicia and Palestine,
     701. Capital at Nineveh

Sidon favored by Assyria; Battle of Altaqu,
     collapse of Palestinian rebellion










Esarhaddon: expansion of Assyria; campaigns
     against northeastern coalition before 673,
     against Arabia 675-674, against Egypt 674,
     673, 670, 668
Kimmerians met in the N. W, and driven back
Rebellion of Sidon broken; city destroyed

Revolt and submission of Baal of Tyre
Lower Egypt becomes an Assyrian province
Division of Empire between sons of Esarhaddon

Ashurbanipal: campaigns in (1) Egypt, 668-666,
     661, (2) Elam, (3) Babylonia, (4) Arabia and
     the west, (5) north and N. W.
     Important building operations; most brilliant
     age of Assyrian civilization
Ethiopians retire from Egypt : Assyrians capture
     Thebes
Battle of Tulliz: Assyria defeats Elam


Gyges of Lydia sends gifts to Assyrian king





Elam devastated and kingdom destroyed
Rebellious chiefs and states in Arabia        and
     Palestine punished (Manasseh of Judah?)




Kimmerians defeated by Assyrians in Cilicia
Records of Ashurbanipal cease


Ashuretilili and Sinsharishkun kings of Assyria

Last struggles and fall of Assyrian monarchy and
     destruction of Nineveh


New Babylonia
Nabupaluçur, Kaldean king of Babylonia
Battle of Karkhemish: Egypt driven from Syria
Nebuchadrezzar II.: building of temples, forti-
     tications, canals, and palaces for Babylon
Jehoiakim's rebellion subdued

Rebellion of the west subdued; Jerusalem de-
     stroyed; kingdom of Judah disappears
Siege of Tyre


Amel Marduk (murdered)
Nergalsharuçur
Labashi Marduk (removed)
Nabuna'id (usurper)

Alliance of Babylonia, Lydia, Egypt, and Sparta
     against Cyrus

Cyrus invades Babylonia, captures Babylon, and
     destroys the New Babylonian Empire
  After  2000

      About
 1840-1700




      About
   1717-1140
    ab. 1600
     "   1450

    "   1425
    "   1400
    "   1380
    "   1350
    "   1325



    "   1310




    "   1280



   ab. 1250




    "  1150



    "  1140

 "  1140-1007
 ? 1140-1123
   ab. 1125

" 1122-1117
" 1116-1105
" 1110-1100




  "  1090

  "  1080

  "  1060
  "  1050




  "  1000



  About 1000
   ab.  950


   ab.  930

   911-890



   890-885

   885-860





   860-825





       842

    827-822

    825-812



   812-783




   783-773


   773-755

 763 (June 15)
   755-745
      746
  747-734
 
  745-727


   
     734
  734-732
     732
732-729


     730
  728-727


  727-722


  722-705


  720-710

  719-708

     717
     715

  715-687

ab. 710
     709
    
     708

  705-681



    
     701

    694-3
     693
     691
     690
ab. 693-666

  689-681




  681-668


  680-678
     678
  ab. 676
     673
  670-669
     669
  668 April

  668-626

  668-648


     661

     660



  652-648

  648-626


  ab. 645
 after 645






  ab. 640


   626-606?

 ab. 608-606?




  626-605
     605
  605-562

  601-597

  588-586
  585-573?

   ab. 584
   ab. 568
  562-560
  560-556
     556
  555-539
     550
   ab.547

  546-545
  539-536

Earliest Patesis and Kings of
Assyria. Ishme Dagan and
Shamshi Adad I.; Shamshi
Adad II. son of Igur (Bel)-
kapkapu; Irishum son of
Khallu; Ikunum son of
Irishum; Shushpi-aibi; Su
lili


Ashurbelnisheshu of Assyria

Puzur Ashur
Ashurnadinakhi I.
Ashuruballit

Nineteenth Dynasty in Egypt



Belnirari, extension of Assyria
     to the east
Pudi-ilu
Adadnirari I.
 
Shalmaneser I., extension of
Assyrian power to the N. W.
Kalkhi made the capital
 
Tukulti Ninib, conqueror of
     Babylonia, king of Babylon
Ashurnaçirpal I.
 
Belkuduruçur
Ninibapalekur
 
 
 
Ashurdan I., victor over Babylon
 
 
Mutakkil Nusku
Ashurrishishi: eastern wars
 
 
 
Tiglathpileser I.: campaigns
in north, N. W., west Meso‑
potamia, Babylonia, Elam,
and Syria(?).            Wide exten‑
sion of Assyrian territory
Ashurbelkala: capital at Nin‑
eveh?
Shamshi Adad III.
 
Ashurnaçirpal II.
A period of decline and dark‑
     ness in Assyria: only kings'
     names known are
          Ashurkirbi (?)
          Irba Adad
          Ashurnadinakhi II.
 
 
 
Eighth Dynasty of Babylonia
 
 
 
 
 
Shamashmudammiq
 
Nabushumishkun: peace with
     Assyria
 
 
Nabuapaliddin
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Marduknadinshum: vassal of
     Shalmaneser II.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Nabunaçir: Canon of Ptolemy
     and Babylonian Chronicle
     begin with him
 
 
 
 
Nabunadinziri (Nadinu)
Nabushumukin, usurper
Ukinzir of Kaldu, usurper;
    appearance of Mardukbaliddin,
     who pays tribute to
    Tiglathpileser III.
Tiglathpileser III., king of
     Babylon under name of
     Pulu
Shalmaneser IV. king of Babylon
     under name of Ulula'a
 
 
 
 
Mardukbaliddin king in Baby-
Ion ; Elam joins the Kaldi
against Assyria
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Sargon king in Babylon: later
     Shakkanak Bel
 
 
 
Mardukzakirshum
Mardukbaliddin
 
Belibni
 
Ashurnadinshum
Nergalushezib
Mushezib Marduk
Battle of Khalule
Destruction of Babylon
 
 
Sennacherib king in Babylon;
     Esarhaddon governor of
     Babylon?
 
 
Esarhaddon Shakkanak Bel
 
 
Rebuilding of Babylon
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Shamashshumukin king of
     Babylon
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Rebellion of Shamashshumukin
     and its repression
Ashurbanipal king of Babylon
     under name of Kandalanu
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Independence of Babylon un-
der Nabupaluçur
League of Nabupaluçur and
     Cyaxares for the overthrow
     of Assyria
Arameans appear in northern
Mesopotamia and Khatti
in northern Syria

Hyksos enter and dominate
Egypt for two hundred and
fifty years



Hyksos driven out of Egypt
Eighteenth Dynasty in Egypt
conquers and rules between
the Nile and the Euphrates
Thutmose III. (ab. 1480-1427)
 
The Tel-el-Amarna Letters
 
 
 
 
 
Khatti (Hittites) advance and
dominate Syria; Egypt
withdraws to Palestine
 
 
 
 
 
 
Migration of the "Sea Peo‑
     ples" into Syria and over‑
     throw of Kingdom of Khatti
 
Establishment of the Philis‑
     tines in Palestine
 
 
 
Israel enters the "Promised
     Land"
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Great migrations and confusion
     in Western Asia. Arameans
     move into Upper Mesopo‑
     tamia and north Syria;
     Urartians appear in the
     north and Phrygians in
     Asia Minor
Founding of the Kingdom of
     Israel
 
 
 
 
 
David and Solomon of Israel
Hiram I. of Tyre.
Recovery of Egypt. 22d dyn.
     Sheshonk I.
Kingdom of Israel disrupted
 
 
 
 
 
Rise of kingdom of Damascus,
     Ben Hadad I.
 
Formation of Kingdom of
     Urartu: Kings Lutipris and
     Sarduris I,
 
 
Kingdom of Urartu estab‑
     lished to the east of Lake
     Van. Kings Arame and
     Sarduris II.
 
 
Jehu of Israel pays tribute to
     Assyria
 
 
 
lshpuinis of Masan
 
 
 
Menuas of Urartu
"Mari" (Benhadad III.) of
Damascus Assyrian vassal
 
 
Argistis I. of Urartu; wide ex‑
tension of the kingdom at
the expense of Assyria
 
 
 
 
 
 
Sarduris III. of Urartu de-
feated by Assyria
 
 
Ahaz of Judah (735-715) As‑
syrian vassal.            Kingdom of
Damascus destroyed.            Hoshea
Of Israel Assyrian
vassal
 
Rusas I. of Urartu
 
 
 
 
 
 
Kingdom of Israel destroyed
 
 
Khumbanigash of Elam
 
 
 
Shuturnakhundi of Elam
Shabako, Ethiopian ruler of
     Egypt; 25th dynasty
Hezekiah of Judah
 
Argistis II. of Urartu
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Kallushu of Elam
 
Kudurnakhundi of Elam
Ummanmenanu of Elam
 
Taharqa of Egypt
 
Khummakhaldash I. and II.
     of Elam
 
 
 
New migrations in the northern
     mountains: Kimmerians
     and Scythians appear
Urtaki of Elam
 
League of northern and
     northeastern states shat‑
     tered by Assyrian war and
     diplomacy
 
 
 
 
 
Tanutamon Ethiopian king in
     Egypt
Teumman of Elam
 
 
Khumbanigash II. of Elam
     Assyrian vassal
Tammaritu, Indabigash and
Khummakhaldash III. succes‑
     sively kings of Elam
 
 
 
 
 
 
Persians begin to take pos‑
     session of Elam
Practical independence of
     Egypt under Psamtik I.
     26th dynasty
 
Organization of Median king‑
dom under Cyaxares
Influx of Scythian hordes
 
 
 
 
 
Other Countries
Necho II. of Egypt, enters Syria, defeats Josiah of Judah
 
Jehoiakim of Judah (607-597) vassal of Egypt and Babylon
 
Jehoiachin of Judah (597)
Zedekiah of Judah (597-586)
Hophra of Egypt
Amasis of Egypt
 
Astyages, king of Media
Babylonian invasion of Egypt
 
 
Rise of Cyrus, king of Anshan
 
Medo-Persian Empire founded by Cyrus
 
 
Cyrus overthrows Crœsus of Lydia



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